The Annotated Ramsar List: Sudan
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The Annotated Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance
SUDAN/ SOUDAN / SUDÁN
The Convention on Wetlands came into force for Sudan on 7 May 2005. Sudan presently has 4 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance, with a surface area of 8,189,600 hectares.
site; date of designation; region, province, state; surface area; coordinates
site; date de désignation; région, province, état; superficie; coordonnées
sitios; fecha de designación; región, provincia, estado; área; coordenadas
Dinder National Park (DNP).07/01/05; Sennar State; 1,084,600 ha; 12°19'N 034°47'E. National Park, UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. A very large complex of about 40 wetlands, or "mayas", and pools formed by meanders and oxbows that are part of the Rahad and Dinder river drainage systems bordering the frontier with Ethiopia in southeastern Sudan. Both rivers and their tributaries, coming from the Ethiopian highlands across the flat plain of the Park, are seasonal and flow from June to November, peaking in August. The wetlands are vital as a source of water and of the most nutritious grasses for herbivores, especially during the most severe part of the dry season. A large number of animal species are supported, some of which, like the tiang Damaliscus korrigum, are endangered. Located in the center of migration routes among three continents, the site is visited by a large number of species of migratory birds, and some of the mayas contain quantities of fish throughout the dry season. Recent archaeological investigations at many locations within the park show promise of important finds from ancient Meroitic and medieval Fung sultanate periods. The local population practices agriculture and pastoralism and many are nomadic within the park during dry and rainy seasons. Illegal fires set by non-local nomadic grazers, poachers, and honey collectors are cited as among the chief threats to the site. Ramsar site no. 1461. Most recent RIS information: 2005.
Dongonab Bay-Marsa Waiai. 02/02/09; Red Sea State; 280,000 ha; 20°33'N 037°13’E. National Marine Park. An expanse of coastline including coral reefs, mangroves, off-shore islands, soft-bottom mud flats, sand beaches and hard bottom rocky shores in addition to salt-marshes, sabkha and khor basins. As a result the site is rich in biological diversity and provides support to various threatened species and provides permanent habitats, breeding grounds and areas of refuge for various fish and shrimp. The Bottlenose Dolphin and various shark species have also been recorded within the site. The main land uses within the site are animal breeding, mainly of camels, goats and sheep; fisheries; oyster culture; and tourist activities such as scuba diving. Potential threats arise from major land use changes: a proposed shrimp and fish farming industry project along the southern stretch of coastline, livestock fodder production and ice plants, and overgrazing by nomads and camel herders, as well as declining rainfall. The site comprises a National Marine Park of the same name as well as the Senganeb Atoll NMP, and Marine Protected Area status is in the works for the Mukkawar Island area. Ramsar Site No. 1859 Most recent RIS information: 2009.
Suakin-Gulf of Agig.02/02/09; Red Sea State; 1,125,000 ha; 18°34’N 038°05’E. The site boundary follows the Suakin Archipelago, a proposed Marine Protected Area that occupies the southeastern quarter of the site. It is comprised of diverse forms of wetlands such as sand flats, coral reefs, lagoons, sand shores amongst others, a diversity which allows for a rich range of fauna and flora to thrive at the site – marine turtles such as the Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas); seabirds; commercial bony fish and shrimp species. Sightings of the Sea Cow (Dugong dugon) and Bottlenose Dolphin (Turciops truncates) have also been noted. Various socio-economic activities take place within and around the site, but the most common practice is nomadism with camels, which are of great social and economic value. The Tokar Delta is the sole area with significant potential for cultivation in the whole coastal zone, with cotton, sorghum, millet and vegetables. The proposed shrimp and fish farming industry project, as well as efforts to widen the entrance and ship channels and reconstruct the port of Suakin, pose major threats to the character of the site. Ramsar site no. 1860. Most recent RIS information: 2009.
Sudd.05/06/06; Southern Sudan; 5,700,000 ha; 07°34'N 030°39'E. Includes National Park and game reserves. One of the largest tropical wetlands in the world, located in Southern Sudan in the lower reaches of Bahr el Jebel, a section of the White Nile. The site is composed of various ecosystems, from open water and submerged vegetation to floating fringe vegetation, seasonally inundated woodland, rain-fed and river-fed grasslands, and floodplain scrubland. It is an important wintering ground for birds such as Pelecanus onocrotalus, Balearica pavonina, Ciconia ciconia and Chlidonias nigra, and home to some endemic fish, birds, mammal and plant species. The wetland serves as a filter that controls water quality and a sponge that stabilizes water flow. It is the major source of water for domestic, livestock, and wildlife use and an important source of fish. The socio-economic and cultural activities of local people are dependent on its annual floods and rains to regenerate floodplain grasses to feed their cattle, as they move from permanent settlements on the highlands to dry-season grazing in the intermediate lands and return to the highlands in May-June when the rainy season starts. Threats to the site include oil exploration - Sudd contains Sudan's largest oil reserve - and the Jonglei Canal Project, which is currently on hold, but would reduce wet and dry season flows by 20 and 10% respectively, thus impacting the wetland's ecology and consequently its inhabitants. Ramsar site no. 1622. Most recent RIS information: 2006.