The Annotated Ramsar List: Indonesia


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The Annotated Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance


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The Convention on Wetlands came into force for Indonesia on 8 August 1992. Indonesia presently has 7 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance, with a surface area of 1,372,976 hectares.

site; date of designation; region, province, state; surface area; coordinates
site; date de désignation; région, province, état; superficie; coordonnées
sitios; fecha de designación; región, provincia, estado; área; coordenadas

Berbak. 08/04/92; Jambi; 162,700 ha; 01º24'S 104º16'E. National Park. A vast area of undisturbed peat swamp forest (115,000ha) and freshwater swamp forest (45,000ha), dissected by a large river and inhabited by a small group of native people. The forests are inundated for most of the year. In the dry season, brackish water penetrates up to 10km upstream. The site supports more than 150 tree species and over 34 species of fish, and is an important area for staging shorebirds. Three endangered species of birds (Storm’s Stork, White-winged Wood Duck, and Hornbill), eight species of notable mammals (including the Sumatran Rhino, Tapir, Tiger and Malayan Sun Bear) and two species of notable reptiles (Estuarine Crocodile and False Gharial) are found here. Coastal mudflats located outside the reserve are important feeding grounds for waterbirds. Ramsar site no. 554. Most recent RIS information: 1991.

Danau Sentarum. 30/08/94; West Kalimantan; 80,000 ha; 00º51'N 112º06'E. National Park. A series of seasonal freshwater lakes, connecting rivers, peat and freshwater swamp forest. The last vast area of primary freshwater swamp forest remaining in Kalimantan, and possibly the last major representative example of this habitat in the Sunda Islands. Over 185 species of fish and 200 species of birds are present. The reserve is home to the largest known inland population of Proboscis monkey. A seasonally fluctuating population lives on the site depending on fisheries, which provide 3,000 wet tonnes annually, for their livelihood. A field management and research centre are located in the reserve. Other human activities include cultivation and traditional harvest of forest products. Ramsar site no. 667. Most recent RIS information: 1997.

Pulau Rambut Wildlife Reserve. 11/11/11; Jakarta Special Capital Region; 90 ha; 05°58'28"S 106°41'35"E. Wildlife Sanctuary. The site, located on a small atoll reef island northwest of Jakarta City, has a tropical climate and comprises several wetland habitat types, such as coral reefs, intertidal flats, mangrove forests, lagoons and seasonal freshwater marshes. As one of the important chain of wetlands along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, the site is an important transit station for waterbirds especially from October to December, when they migrate from the northern hemisphere to Australia. The site supports three internationally threatened bird species, especially the vulnerable Milky Stork (Mycteria cinerea), with one of the biggest breeding colonies of this species in Indonesia. The site's 15 mangrove species form a complex community that provides breeding habitat for many waterbirds, including the Little Cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger), Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus), and ardeidae such as the Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax). Small scale traditional fishery is practiced as daily support for local communities but there are no people or villages within the site itself. Access is allowed through a small jetty for small boats with the capacity of about 30 persons. A tower observation hide has been built as well as wooden boardwalks so that visitors do not damage the natural wetlands on the site. Ramsar site no:1987. Most recent RIS information: 2011

Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park. 06/03/11; Southwest Sulawesi; 105,194 ha; 04°28'S 121°59'E. One of the most important conservation areas in the Wallacea region, consisting of mangroves, savannah, peat swamps, lowland tropical rain forests and sub-montane forests. The site is biologically rich, with over 500 recorded species of flora, 200 species of birds, eleven species of reptiles and over 20 species of fish and mammals. Many endemic and threatened species are found here, with over 15 mammals endemic to Sulawesi such as the endangered Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis) and vulnerable Sulawesi Civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroeckii). The Park is an important stopover for migratory waterbirds, and it supports a population of over 170 vulnerable Milky Stork (Mycteria cinerea)which is morethan 3% of the world population. This site contains the only remaining large mangrove habitat in South East Sulawesi that is an important nursery and spawning area for fish, prawns and crabs. Swamps within the national park (particularly Aopa Peat Swamp) are important regulators of water. It acts as a reservoir for freshwater, while run-off habitats help to control water discharge. Aopa Swamp is the only representative peatswamp wetland in Sulawesi. Threats to the site include illegal logging, poaching of waterbirds and collection of eggs. A section of the Aopa Swamp is being drained to direct water into surrounding agricultural areas. Ramsar Site no.1944. Most recent RIS information: 2011.

Sembilang National Park. 06/03/11; South Sumatra; 202,896 ha; 1°57'S 104°36'E. The Park supports a unique estuarine environment which has the largest mangrove formation in East Sumatra, along the western part of Indonesia, and it also supports coastal forest, lowland tropical forests, swamps, and peatlands. This site is biologically rich with over 200 species of birds, 140 species of fish and over 50 mammal species. Many of these species are threatened such as the critically endangered Sumatran Tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), and the endangered Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Storm's Stork (Ciconia stormi), and Malayan Giant Turtle (Orlitia borneensis). Over 43% of the mangrove species in Indonesia are also found here. The mangroves and large alluvial delta makes this site one of the critical stopover areas for migratory waterbirds along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Some 0.5-1 million shorebirds use this area and during winter and almost 80,000-100,000 migratory birds feed and rest here. It supports more than 1% of the population of Milky Stork, Asian Dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatus), Spotted Greenshank (Tringa guttifer), Far Eastern Curlew (Numenius madagascariensis) and the Lesser Adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus). It has one of the largest breeding colony of Milky Stork (Mycteria cinerea) in the world, and one of the largest breeding colony of the Spotted-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis) and Lesser Adjutant in Indonesia. The swamps and peat forests act as container areas to store freshwater; this in turn recharges the ground water table that feeds 70 small rivers in the park. Threats to the site include illegal logging and encroaching development (e.g. harbour and industrial estates). Ramsar Site no.1945. Most recent RIS information: 2011.

Tanjung Puting National Park. 11/12/2013; Central Kalimantan; 408,286 ha; 03°02’47” S and 111°59’45” E. National Park; UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserve. This area is one of the most important conservation areas in Central Kalimantan, acting as a water reservoir and representing one of the largest remaining habitats of the endangered Kalimantan Orangutan Pongo pygmaeus. The site consists of seven different types of swamp, including peat swamp forests, lowland tropical rainforest, freshwater swamp forests and as well as mangroves and coastal forest. It supports large numbers of endemic species of flora and fauna adapted to the predominant acidic peat swamp environment. The area was declared a National Park in 1996, and is currently managed under a long-term plan (2009-2029) to rehabilitate areas formerly used for timber concessions and to prevent illegal logging and encroachment. Local communities depend on the wetlands for fish, fruit and timber and some continue to use traditional methods of fishing and to extract latex from the Jelutong/Gum tree Dyera costulata. However, there is increasing pressure on the natural resources of the area, leading to the decline of endemic species such as the Ramin Gonystylus bancanus and Meranti (Shorea spp.) trees. Ramsar Site no.2192. Most recent RIS information: 2013.

Wasur National Park.16/03/06; Irian Jaya; 413,810 hectares; 08°38'S 140°23'E. National Park. A low-lying wetland in the monsoon climate zone of southern New Guinea, with intertidal mudflats and coastal mangroves with extensive seasonally inundated grasslands, reed swamps, savannahs, and monsoon forest. The site is the habitat for a number of rare and endemic species, including the Fly River Grassbird (Megalurus albolimbatus) and Grey-crowned Munia (Lonchura nevermanni).Tens of thousands of waterbirds visit the region during migration between eastern Siberia and northern Australia. The topography is exceptionally flat, with little natural drainage in large parts of the reserve. Land use is chiefly subsistence farming by small local communities of four groups of autochthonous peoples, and the area contains many sites of spiritual significance and archaeological importance. Poaching and alien invasive species like water hyacinth and mimosa pigra, as well as population pressures from the nearby town of Merauke, are seen as the greatest threats. Ecotourism infrastructure is being developed to accommodate international as well as local tourists, to benefit local communities. The site is contiguous with the Tonda Wildlife Management Area Ramsar site in Papua New Guinea. Ramsar site no. 1624. Most recent RIS information: 2006.

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