36th Meeting of the Ramsar

10/01/2008

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CONVENTION ON WETLANDS (Ramsar, Iran, 1971)
36th Meeting of the Standing Committee
Gland, Switzerland, 25-29 February 2008
Agenda item 14.3
DOC. SC36-19

The Convention's Programme on communication, education, participation, and awareness (CEPA) 2009-2014

Action requested: The Standing Committee is requested to review and advise on the draft COP10 Resolution and annexed draft CEPA Programme, and to approve the document for finalisation for consideration by SC37.

Note by the Ramsar secretariat

1. The current CEPA programme, adopted as Resolution VIII.31 The Convention's Programme on communication, education and public awareness (CEPA) 2003-2008, ceases to be operational at the end of 2008.

2. In Resolution IX.18 and Standing Committee decision SC34-11, the CEPA Oversight Panel was requested to advise the Standing Committee on the form and function of the next CEPA Programme for the period 2009-2014 to be proposed to COP10.

3. At its first meeting in May 2006, the CEPA Oversight Panel agreed that:

  • the new Programme should not depart significantly from the structure and format of the current programme in order not to discourage the continuation of implementation by Parties - this was a particular request of the CEPA National Focal Point members of the Panel;
  • 'participation' should be addressed in the new Programme as a highly effective strategy for building awareness of wetland values and/or skills for wetland management, and a clear link should be made to the participatory COP Resolutions already adopted; and
  • the role of the CEPA National Focal Points (both Government and NGO) is critical to the delivery and reporting on the CEPA Programme, and this importance should be emphasized in the new Programme.

4. This has provided an overall approach throughout the drafting process by the CEPA Oversight Panel, assisted by the Secretariat Communications Team, which has been carried out through two face-to-face meetings (in May 2006 and June 2007) and by e-mail.

5. The Standing Committee will also be aware of the work of the Advisory Board on Capacity Building, established in follow-up to the former RIZA wetland management training board in the Netherlands. As the role of the Advisory Board continues to evolve under the Chairmanship of the new Secretary General, the CEPA Oversight Panel would like to keep open the opportunity to further update the draft CEPA Programme in the light of the outcomes of the Advisory Board's planned meeting in mid-March of this year, notably in relation to any further development of the Board's draft Capacity Building Framework.

6. It is therefore suggested that the Standing Committee provide comments on the attached draft new CEPA Programme and request the Secretariat and the CEPA Oversight Panel to prepare a final draft for consideration by the 37th meeting of the Standing Committee.


Draft COP10 DRx

The Convention's Programme on communication, education, participation and awareness (CEPA) 2009-2014

1. RECALLING that Resolution VII.9 adopted the Convention's first Outreach Programme for the period 1999-2002, and that Resolution VIII.31, The Convention's Programme on communication, education and public awareness (CEPA) 2003-2008, continued the CEPA programme for the next triennium;

2. EXPRESSING SATISFACTION with the work done by the Ramsar Secretariat and the CEPA Oversight Panel established under Resolution IX.18;

3. RECOGNIZING that, as requested by Resolutions VII.9 and VIII.31, as of 1 January 2008 117 Contracting Parties (75%) have designated their Government CEPA Focal Points and 98 Parties (62%) their national Non-governmental Organization CEPA Focal Points, but CONCERNED that a significant number of Parties have yet so to do, thus limiting the opportunities for coordinating CEPA delivery under the Convention;

4. CONGRATULATING the 23 Contracting Parties that have formed national CEPA Task Forces and in particular Australia, Germany, Hungary and Spain for having developed National Wetland CEPA Action Plans as urged by Resolution VIII.31, as well as the countries that have prepared CEPA plans at site level, but CONCERNED that so few Parties have thus far done likewise;

5. EXPRESSING THANKS to the Ramsar International Organization Partners (IOPs) for their ongoing support to CEPA activities globally and within many Contracting Parties, and also to the Danone Group for its continuing sponsorship of outreach activities under the Convention;

6. RECOGNIZING that the Advisory Board on Capacity Building for the Ramsar Convention is developing a framework for capacity building for wetland wise use, with input from the CEPA Panel, as an over-arching approach within which the implementation of the Annex of this Resolution is contributing; and

7. RECOGNIZING the contribution that many of the Ramsar Regional Initiatives will make to implementation of the Annex to this Resolution;

THE CONFERENCE OF THE CONTRACTING PARTIES

8. ADOPTS the Convention's Programme on communication, education, participation, and awareness (CEPA) 2009-2014, contained in the Annex to this Resolution, as an instrument to provide guidance to Contracting Parties, the Ramsar Secretariat, the Convention's International Organization Partners (IOPs), other NGOs, community-based organizations, local stakeholders and others in the development of appropriate actions to support the implementation of the Convention at the international, regional, national and local levels;

9. CONFIRMS that this Resolution and its Annex replace and supersede Resolutions VII.9 and VIII.31 and their Annexes;

10. REQUESTS the CEPA Oversight Panel, established by Resolution IX.18, to monitor and report on CEPA issues within the Convention and the progress of implementation of the CEPA Programme as established by this Resolution, and to advise the Standing Committee and the Secretariat on the CEPA work priorities at the national and international levels, including the CEPA priorities of the Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP);

11. REAFFIRMS the call made in Resolutions VII.9 and VIII.31 for all Contracting Parties that have yet to do so to nominate as a matter of priority suitably qualified Government and Non-governmental Organization Focal Points for wetland CEPA and to inform the Ramsar Secretariat accordingly, and URGES Parties to ensure that the CEPA Focal Points are members of the National Ramsar/Wetlands Committee where these exist;

12. URGES all Contracting Parties, as suggested in Resolutions VII.9 and VIII.31 and in the CEPA Programme 2009-2014, to establish appropriately constituted Task Forces, where no mechanism exists for this purpose currently, to undertake a review of needs, capacities and opportunities in the field of wetland CEPA, and based upon the results of that review to formulate their Wetland CEPA Action Plans (at national, subnational, catchment, or local levels) for priority activities which address international, regional, national, and local needs, and to provide copies of these to the Ramsar Secretariat to make available to other Contracting Parties and organizations;

13. STRONGLY URGES all Contracting Parties to seek to develop and implement their Wetland CEPA Action Plans as integrated components of their broader environment, biodiversity, wetland and water management policy instruments and programmes, and to ensure that CEPA is recognized as underpinning the effective delivery of these activities;

14. CALLS UPON those Contracting Parties with wetland CEPA plans to evaluate the effectiveness of those plans on a regular basis, to amend their priority actions where necessary, and to provide feedback to the CEPA Oversight Panel on such reviews and revisions;

15. REITERATES the call to multilateral and bilateral donors and private sector sponsors to support appropriate actions as set out in the Ramsar CEPA Programme 2009-2014;

16. URGES the Ramsar Secretariat to assist in strengthening the capacity of the CEPA Focal Points by the provision of training, possibly with the assistance of the Advisory Board on Capacity Building for the Ramsar Convention;

17. RECOGNIZES the growing celebration of World Wetlands Day in a large number of countries, and URGES Contracting Parties to continue, or to begin, to use this occasion to bring attention to their achievements and continuing challenges in wetland conservation and wise use;

18. ENCOURAGES those Contracting Parties with established, or proposed, wetland education centres and related facilities to support the development of those centres as key places of learning and training about wetlands and wetland-related CEPA and to support their participation in the global (and developing regional and national) network of such centres under the Wetland Link International programme of the WWT (UK);

19. ALSO ENCOURAGES Contracting Parties to recognize and utilise the capacity of the Ramsar Regional Centers in wetland training in their respective regions;

20. INSTRUCTS the Secretary General to deepen collaboration with the members of the Biodiversity Liaison Group, especially the Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity, through the mechanism of the established Joint Work Plan, for harmonising the respective CEPA programmes of the two conventions, including collaboration with the CBD's Informal Advisory Committee;

21. INVITES the Ramsar IOPs and other organizations with which the Ramsar Secretariat has collaborative agreements to support the implementation of the Ramsar CEPA Programme at the global, regional, national or local levels, as appropriate, with the expertise, networks, skills and resources they have at their disposal, and ENCOURAGES the Ramsar IOPs and other organizations to establish regional task forces with interest in developing and/or supporting networks at the national and regional level; and

22. URGES those Parties with other national and local languages different from the three official languages of the Convention to consider translating key Ramsar guidance and guidelines into those languages in order to make them more widely available.


Annex

Programme on communication, education, participation and awareness (CEPA) 2009-2014 of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971)

Background

1. This third CEPA Programme, as presented below, is intended to operate for a six-year period (2009-2014) in conjunction with the third Strategic Plan of the Convention to be adopted at COP10, and it has been formulated to be consistent with the structure of the Strategic Plan and Work Plan. It replaces the annexes to Resolutions VII.9 and VIII.31. An explanation of the terms 'communication', 'education', 'participation' and 'awareness' are available in Appendix 1.

2. There is considerable evidence of a continuing interest and increasing commitment to wetland CEPA within the Convention.

a) CEPA was formally recognized as a high priority, cross-cutting area of work for the Convention at the 29th meeting of the Standing Committee in February 2003, and, through Resolution IX.11, a CEPA expert has been appointed to the Convention's Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP) with the role of providing expert input to all stages of the STRP's work in developing new guidance on wetland issues. This expert will draw inter alia on the Convention's CEPA networks and those of the Convention's International Organization Partners (IOPs).

b) Although only four Contracting Parties (Australia, Germany, Hungary and Spain) have submitted their National CEPA Action Plans to the Ramsar Secretariat, there are many other Parties that are currently working towards that goal or implementing CEPA action plans at other scales. There is growing evidence that Parties are recognizing CEPA as an integral part of site and basin-level management planning and incorporating appropriate CEPA activities into such plans.

c) There is administrative and other support within the Ramsar Secretariat dedicated to CEPA, and a modest budget to support the Programme was included as part of the Convention's core budget for 2006-2008.

d) There is an evolving approach within the Convention to wetland management planning that includes community participation and education, as well as considerable evidence of rapidly growing knowledge at all levels within the Convention of participatory techniques and the CEPA skills that underlie them.

e) The relationship between the Convention and the Wetland Link International (WLI) programme of the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust (WWT) has been strengthened through the signing of a Memorandum of Cooperation in November 2005. The WLI network continues to grow and has evolved to include national and regional networks within the global network.

Vision and guiding principles

Vision

3. The vision of the Ramsar Convention's CEPA Programme is:

"People taking action for the wise use of wetlands"

Guiding principles

4. The guiding principles that underpin the Ramsar CEPA Programme are:

a) The CEPA Programme offers tools to help people understand the values of wetlands so that they are motivated to become advocates for wetland conservation and wise use and may act to become involved in relevant policy formulation, planning and management. Key target groups and stakeholders of this CEPA Programme are identified in Appendix 4.

b) The CEPA Programme fosters the production of effective CEPA tools and expertise to engage major stakeholders' participation in the wise use of wetlands and to convey appropriate messages in order to promote the wise use principle throughout society.

c) The Ramsar Convention believes that CEPA should form a central part of implementing the Convention by each Contracting Party. Investment in CEPA will increase the number of informed advocates, actors and networks involved in wetland issues and build an informed decision-making and public constituency.

Goals and strategies to pursue the Vision

5. The Programme identifies what needs to be achieved (the Goals), how these goals can be realised (the Strategies), and what results should be achieved (Key Results Areas). An overview of the Goals and Strategies is provided in Box 1.

Box 1: Overview of the Programme's Goals and Strategies

Goal 1: Communication, education, participation and awareness are used effectively at all levels of the Convention to promote the value of wetlands.

This goal includes recommendations that relate to using CEPA to enhance awareness of wetland values, promotion of CEPA as a valuable process, and integration of CEPA into policies and planning at multi-scalar levels from global and national, to basin to site level.

Strategy 1.1 Foster sustained national and subnational campaigns, programmes and projects to raise community awareness of the important ecosystem services provided by wetlands, including their social, economic, and cultural values.

Strategy 1.2 Demonstrate that CEPA processes are effective in achieving Ramsar's wetland wise use objectives at the global, national and local levels.

Strategy 1.3 Integrate CEPA processes into all levels of policy development, planning and implementation of the Convention.

Strategy 1.4 Support and develop mechanisms to ensure that CEPA processes are incorporated into wetland site management plans.

Goal 2: Support and tools have been provided for the effective implementation of national and local wetland-related CEPA activities.

This goal is focused on establishing the enabling environment for the effective implementation of CEPA. This includes mechanisms such as frameworks and action plans, the establishment of CEPA focal points, including individuals, organizations and centres, and mechanisms such as networks for information exchange and access to resources, experts and training.

Strategy 2.1 Ensure that national and local leadership, networks and cohesive frameworks are developed to support and catalyse CEPA for the wise use of wetlands.

Strategy 2.2 Transfer, exchange and share CEPA information and expertise that promotes and results in the wise use of wetlands.

Strategy 2.3 Recognize and support the role of wetland centres and other environment centres as catalysts and key actors for CEPA activities that promote Ramsar objectives

Goal 3: People are motivated and enabled to act for the wise use of wetlands.

This goal is focused on using the CEPA framework, and its tools and products, to motivate and enable new actors to be actively involved for the wise use of wetlands

Strategy 3.1 Improve the individual and collective capacity and opportunities of people to participate in and contribute to using wetlands wisely.

Strategy 3.2 Support and develop mechanisms to ensure multi-stakeholder participation in wetland management.

6. To be effective, implementation of this Programme must be undertaken by the following responsible bodies and collaborative partners of the Convention:

AA: The Administrative Authority in each country
CEPA: The Convention's CEPA National Focal Points
NRC: National Ramsar Committee / National Wetlands Committee (or equivalent bodies) that should be in place in each Party
STRP: The Scientific and Technical Review Panel, its CEPA Expert and its network of National Focal Points
Secretariat: The Ramsar Convention Secretariat
IOPs: International Organization Partners, at present BirdLife International, , the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Wetlands International, The World Conservation Union (IUCN), and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International
RRCs: The Ramsar Regional Centres endorsed by the Convention as Ramsar Regional Initiatives
OCs: Other collaborators, such as national non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations, including organizations with which Ramsar has agreements in place

7. Those responsible for implementing the Programme, or who are urged to assist in implementing it, as shown in paragraph 6, constitute the Programme's key list of actors, but this should be considered as indicative and may change during the life of the Programme. All involved in delivering the outcomes of the Ramsar Convention clearly need to be involved in this Programme in some way, at some time. To assist Parties in monitoring implementation, Annex 3 collates in a table the Key Result Areas to be found in subsequent paragraphs, indicates the potential implementing actors, and provides a means of tracking implementation.

Goal 1: Communication, education, participation and awareness are used effectively at all levels of the Convention to promote the value of wetlands.

Strategy 1.1 Foster sustained national and subnational campaigns, programmes and projects to raise community awareness of the important ecosystem services provided by wetlands, including their social, economic, and cultural values.

Key Result Areas:

1.1.1 Campaign, programmes or projects have been undertaken with key partners to raise awareness, build community support, and promote stewardship approaches and attitudes towards wetlands.

1.1.2 World Wetlands Day has been celebrated with appropriate national and local events and promotions and resource materials have been distributed, in order to raise awareness of wetland values and functions.

1.1.3 Collaboration with the media has helped to inform decision-makers, key wetland users, and the broader society about the values and benefits of wetlands.

1.1.4 Appropriate Wetlands of International Importance have been promoted as 'demonstration sites' for Ramsar's wise use principle, and these sites are suitably equipped in terms of capacity, signage, and interpretive materials.

Strategy 1.2 Demonstrate that CEPA processes are effective in achieving Ramsar's wetland wise use objectives at the global, national and local levels.

Key Result Areas:

1.2.1 Pilot projects are developed and evaluated for a range of approaches for applying CEPA in promoting the wise use of wetlands, in particular involving those who make a direct use of wetland resources.

1.2.2 Existing CEPA programmes and case studies have been reviewed and the lessons learned regarding effective approaches from these experiences have been documented.

1.2.3 The findings and conclusions drawn from Actions 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 have been made available to Parties and the broader community through appropriate mechanisms (see Strategies 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3).

Strategy 1.3 Integrate CEPA processes into all levels of policy development, planning and implementation of the Convention.

Key Result Areas:

1.3.1 CEPA is integrated into all relevant Convention work programmes, including joint work plans with other conventions and organizations, and included in the development of all further Ramsar guidance for Parties through the CEPA expertise included in the Convention's Scientific and Technical Review Panel.

1.3.2 Where appropriate, wetland CEPA has been integrated into the business of national and regional wetland, biodiversity, forestry, agriculture, irrigation, power generation, mining, tourism, and fisheries committees and other relevant policy and planning committees where they exist.

1.3.3 Through collaboration globally and nationally, synergy has been encouraged with the CEPA activities under other international conventions and programmes.

1.3.4 Major stakeholders have collaborated to integrate wetland CEPA into all relevant regional (where applicable), national, catchment and local wetland and other appropriate sectoral policies, strategies, plans and programmes, such as those for biodiversity conservation, water management, fisheries, poverty reduction, etc.

Strategy 1.4 Support and develop mechanisms to ensure that CEPA processes are incorporated into wetland management plans at basin and site level.

Key Result Areas:

1.4.1 Case studies have been documented that show the positive role of CEPA in local management activities and the critical role of CEPA tools and skills in effective participatory wetland management, and these case studies have been made available to the Ramsar Secretariat for distribution to Contracting Parties and other interested bodies.

1.4.2 Multi-stakeholder bodies are in place to guide and inform catchment/river basin and local wetland-related planning and management, and these bodies include appropriate expertise in CEPA.

1.4.3 Catchment/river basin planning and management documents include communication, education, participation, awareness, and capacity building as central processes in the delivery of overall water and wetland management objectives.

1.4.4 Where they do not already exist, the appropriate strategies and actions for communication, education, participation, and awareness have been introduced into site management plans.

Goal 2: Support and tools have been provided for the effective implementation of national and local wetland-related communication, education, participation and awareness (CEPA) activities.

Strategy 2.1 Ensure that leadership, coordination and cohesive frameworks are developed at all levels to support and catalyse CEPA for the wise use of wetlands.

Key Result Areas:

2.1.1 Contracting Parties have appointed suitably qualified persons to fulfil the roles of national Government and Non-governmental Organization (NGO) Focal Points for wetland CEPA, and have advised the Ramsar Secretariat of the persons fulfilling these roles and their contact details (further information on nominating National Focal Points and their roles and responsibilities is available in Appendix 2); the CEPA Focal Points should be members of National Ramsar or Wetland Committees where these bodies exist. Where appropriate, Parties have appointed more than one NGO Focal Point.

2.1.2 A national Wetland CEPA Task Force has been established (if no other mechanisms exist for this purpose), including key stakeholder and NGO participation, and a review of needs, skills, expertise and options has been undertaken and priorities set for the co-development and implementation of this programme of work.

2.1.3 National CEPA Focal Points have been encouraged to collaborate with wetland and other environmental education centres and, as appropriate, a representative of such centres has been included on the Wetland CEPA Task Force or other planning bodies.

2.1.4 A national (or, as appropriate, a subnational, catchment or local) CEPA Action Plan has been formulated, drawing upon the CEPA toolkit developed for this purpose and the Convention's guidelines on participatory management, and the conclusions to emerge from Key Result Area 2.1.2 above have been incorporated into it. A copy of the Action Plan has been sent to the Ramsar Convention Secretariat so that it can be made available to other Parties and interested organizations and individuals. (The participatory management guidelines, adopted by Resolution VII.8 (1999), are incorporated in Handbook 5 of the 3rd edition of the Ramsar Handbook series.)

Strategy 2.2 Transfer, exchange and share CEPA information and expertise that promotes and results in the wise use of wetlands.

Key Result Areas:

2.2.1 Attention has been given to the effectiveness of communication and information-sharing systems among relevant government ministries, departments and agencies, and key stakeholders, and where necessary mechanisms have been developed to address any shortcomings.

2.2.2 The regular updating of the Convention's Web site with appropriate materials, including key easily accessible CEPA pages and other resource materials, ensures that these remain an information source for the CEPA Programme globally.

2.2.3 Ramsar's International Organization Partners (IOPs), especially IUCN's Commission on Education and Communication (CEC), and other organizations with which collaborative agreements are in place, have been encouraged to make suitable resource materials available to assist the global CEPA Programme and provide information on effective CEPA approaches.

2.2.4 Resource materials to support wetland CEPA actions continue to be produced, distributed and shared.

2.2.5 The Ramsar global e-mail networks include Ramsar Administrative Authorities, Ramsar National CEPA Focal Points, CEPA professionals, Ramsar site managers, local stakeholders, and those facilities dedicated to environmental education and awareness raising, and these have been maintained and expanded. Similar national e-groups and the linking of these with the global networks have been established and supported.

2.2.6 An on-line searchable listing of expertise in CEPA and of the CEPA Focal Points has been established and maintained to assist CEPA at national and international levels, and this service has been promoted to assist CEPA programmes and activities.

2.2.7 A Ramsar electronic photolibrary has been established to support global, national and local efforts to raise awareness and appreciation of wetland resources and how these can be used wisely.

Strategy 2.3 Recognize and support the role of wetland education centres and other environment centres as catalysts and key actors for CEPA activities that promote Ramsar objectives.

Key Result Areas:

2.3.1 Education centres have been established at Ramsar and other wetland sites to provide focal points for local and national CEPA activities.

2.3.2 The capacity of existing centres at wetlands and the development of new centres to deliver high quality CEPA programmes has been supported and enhanced.

2.3.3 Where wetland education centres exist, the information they present has been reviewed to ensure that it is helping to promote the Ramsar Convention and its wise use principle in suitable ways. The centres have helped to foster communication and, where appropriate, participation among local wetland management 'actors' and stakeholders.

2.3.4 Wetland education centres have been encouraged to participate in the Wetland Link International network of WWT (the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, UK) as a mechanism for gaining access to global and national expertise in CEPA and sharing of experience.

2.3.5 Efforts have been made to promote and resource the twinning of wetland education centres to encourage the exchange and transfer of information and expertise among centres in developed countries and those in developing countries and countries in transition.

Goal 3: People are motivated and enabled to act for the wise use of wetlands.

Strategy 3.1 Improve the individual and collective capacity and opportunities of people to participate in and contribute to using wetlands wisely.

Key Result Areas:

3.1.1 A review has been carried out on current national needs and capacities in the areas of wetland CEPA, including in relation to the establishment and operations of wetland education centres (see strategies 2.1. and 2.3.), and this has been used to define training and capacity-building priorities within the national wetland CEPA action plan, including training for the CEPA NFPs.

3.1.2 In collaboration with the Advisory Board on Capacity Building for the Ramsar Convention and Ramsar's International Organization Partners, sources of expert wetland information and training opportunities have been identified to facilitate the sharing of expertise and knowledge at the local, national, regional and global levels.

3.1.3 Resources have been sought through appropriate mechanisms to support the training and capacity building identified as priorities through Key Result Areas 3.1.1 and 3.1.2, ensuring that key groups such as women and indigenous and rural communities have not been overlooked.

Strategy 3.2 Support and develop mechanisms to ensure multistakeholder participation in wetland management.

Key Result Areas:

3.2.1 Active participation as an effective process for building skills for wetland management is nationally recognized.

3.2.2 Participation of stakeholder groups with cultural or economic links to wetlands or those communities who depend on the wetlands for their livelihoods is given a high priority and is promoted at the national level, drawing upon the guidance available in Resolution VII.8 Guidelines for establishing and strengthening local communities' and indigenous people's participation in the management of wetlands, incorporated in Handbook 5 of the Ramsar Handbooks for the Wise Use of Wetlands.

3.2.3 Where local wetland knowledge is held by indigenous and local communities, this knowledge is respected and integrated into site management plans.


Appendix 1

Understanding what is meant by the terms "communication, education, participation, awareness, capacity-building and training"

1. In applying this Programme, it is important that Contracting Parties and other interest groups share a common understanding of what is meant by the acronym CEPA, "Communication, education, participation, and awareness", and also the terms "training" and "capacity-building". The advice presented below is based, in part, on the Mainstreaming Biological Diversity publication (produced by UNESCO, the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the World Conservation Union - IUCN). The definitions are intended to give a sense of what practitioners in this field commonly mean by these terms, as well as the perspectives which have been used in formulating this programme.

2. Communication is a two-way exchange of information leading to mutual and enhanced understanding. It can be used to gain the involvement of 'actors' and stakeholders and is a means to gain cooperation of groups in society by listening to them first and clarifying why and how decisions are made. In an instrumental approach, communication is used with other instruments to support wetland conservation, to address economic constraints, and to motivate action.

3. Awareness brings the issues relating to wetlands to the attention of individuals and key groups who have the power to influence outcomes. Awareness is an agenda-setting and advocacy exercise that helps people to know what and why this is an important issue, the aspirations for the targets, and what is and can be done to achieve these.

4. Education is a process that can inform, motivate, and empower people to support wetland conservation, not only by fostering changes in the way that individuals, institutions, business and governments operate, but also by inducing lifestyle changes. It may take place in both formal and informal settings. Education in the broadest sense is a life-long process.

5. Training is the process of increasing or strengthening specific knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours that can be taken back to the workplace. It may take place in both formal and informal settings.

6. Capacity-building includes a range of processes by which individuals, organizations and institutions develop abilities for effective implementation of wise use of wetlands. Abilities include inter alia facilities, funding and resources, infrastructure, enabling environments, etc

7. Participation is the active involvement of "stakeholders" in the common development, implementation and evaluation of strategies and actions for the wise use of wetlands. Levels and kinds of participation can be highly variable, depending upon both the specific context and the decisions of the individuals and institutions leading the process. An indicative list of the range of possible levels and kinds of participation is shown in Box 2.

Box 2. Levels of participation

1. Manipulative Participation
At this extreme, participation is simply a pretence, with 'people's' representatives on official boards but who are unelected and have no power.

2. Passive Participation
People participate by being kept up to date on what has been decided or has already happened. It tends more to involve announcements by an administration or project management than to reflect active attention to people's responses. The information being shared tends to belong only to project professionals.

3. Participation by Consultation
People participate by being consulted or by answering questions. Project authorities define problems and information-gathering processes, and thus tend to control analysis of the responses. Such a consultative process need not typically imply a share in decision making, and professionals are not under an obligation to take people's views on board.

4. Participation for Material Incentives
People can participate by contributing resources, for example labor, in return for food, cash or other material incentives. Farmers may provide the fields and labor, for example, whilst not being directly involved in experimentation or the process of learning. It is not uncommon to see this called 'participation' in a full sense, but in this case people typically have no stake in prolonging technologies or practices when the incentives end.

5. Functional Participation
Participation is sometimes seen by the relevant authorities chiefly as a means to achieve project goals, especially reduced costs. People may participate by forming groups to meet predetermined objectives related to the project. Such involvement may be interactive and involve shared decision making, but it frequently tends to arise only after the most important decisions have already been made by the authorities.

6. Interactive Participation
People participate in joint analysis, development of action plans, and formation or strengthening of local institutions. Participation may be seen as an inherent right, not just as a means to achieve project goals. The process involves interdisciplinary methodologies that seek multiple perspectives and make use of systemic and structured learning processes. As groups take control over local decisions and determine how available resources should be used, they often feel an increasing stake in maintaining structures or practices.

7. Self-Mobilization
In this model, people participate by taking initiatives to change systems independently of external institutions. They develop contacts with external institutions for the resources and technical advice they need, but retain control over how resources are used. Self-mobilization can spread if governments and NGOs provide an enabling framework of support. Such self-initiated mobilization may or may not challenge existing distributions of wealth and power, but they do tend to foster the most long-lasting sense of "ownership" in the outcomes.

Adapted from: Participation in Strategies for Sustainable Development, Environmental Planning Issues No. 7, May 1995 by Stephen Bass, Barry Dalal-Clayton and Jules Pretty, Environmental Planning Group, International Institute for Environment and Development.



Appendix 2

Roles and responsibilities of the CEPA National Focal Points

1. In Resolution IX.18 adopted at COP9 in November 2005, the Parties instructed the Standing Committee at its 34th meeting to establish a CEPA Oversight Panel, one of the key tasks of which would be to clarify the broad roles of the two Government and Non-governmental CEPA National Focal Points (NFPs) nominated by each Party. (Full details on the task of the CEPA Oversight Panel are available at http://www.ramsar.org/outreach_oversight_panel.htm.)

2. The roles and responsibilities of the CEPA NFPs were discussed at the first meeting of the CEPA Panel in May 2006 and recorded in the Meeting Report (available at the above URL) and this report was endorsed by SC35. The text below reflects their deliberations and should be used by Parties to guide their decisions on the nomination, roles, and responsibilities of their CEPA NFPs.

3. The rationale for the nomination of CEPA NFPs and key factors to be taken into consideration by Contracting Parties:

  • It is important that both CEPA NFPs be nominated since they bring different skills to the CEPA Programme, with the NGO NFP in many cases more actively engaged at the grass roots level.
  • Nominating a representative of an active NGO engages the NGO members in the CEPA Programme, gives recognition to their work, and can often bring additional funding to a CEPA programme.
  • While it is preferable that the Government NFP should be a CEPA expert, it is recognized that many Parties may not be willing to nominate a person outside of their Administrative Authority, which frequently means that the nominated person will not be a CEPA expert per se.
  • It is unfortunate that the Government NFP changes rather frequently in some Parties, since this does not support continuity in the national CEPA programme. Frequently, in some Parties, the NGO NFP is the longer-term representative.
  • It is important that the two NFPs should agree and collaborate on their country's CEPA programme.
  • It is important that the NFPs should be key members of the National Ramsar/ Wetland Committee, where these exist, and that they should be in contact with other key Administrative Authority personnel (such as the Daily Contact and the STRP NFP).
  • It is important that the CEPA NFPs be consulted by the Administrative Authority when completing the CEPA questions in the National Reports to the COPs.
  • While the previous CEPA Programme (2003-2008) required the nomination of a Non-governmental rather than NGO (Non-governmental organization) NFP, this current guidance specifies NGO because of the critical role NGOs play as CEPA actors.

4. It is ultimately the task of each Contracting Party to agree precise roles and responsibilities for their nominated CEPA National Focal Points (NFPs). These roles and expectations must reflect the capacity to operate at different levels and the resourcing of the individuals filling the positions. The Contracting Parties should provide some information to potential NFPs of the expected time required to fulfill their role and responsibilities.

5. Suggested major roles and responsibilities of the CEPA NFPs. In providing a supportive environment in which wetland CEPA planners and practitioners can develop their work, NFPs should:

  • provide leadership for the development and implementation of a wetland CEPA programme at an appropriate level (national, subnational, local) as described in this Resolution and annexed Programme;
  • be the main points of contact on CEPA matters between a) the Secretariat and the Contracting Party and b) between Contracting Parties;
  • be key members of the National Ramsar/Wetland Committees (if such a body exists) or similar national structures;
  • assist in the practical CEPA implementation at the national level and in national reporting on CEPA activities to the Ramsar Conference of the Parties;
  • ensure a high, positive public profile for the Ramsar Convention and its conservation and wise use goals;
  • be active spokespersons for wetland CEPA; and
  • establish and maintain any contacts, networks, structures and mechanisms necessary to ensure the effective communication of information between relevant actors at all levels and in all sectors.

Appendix 3

Tracking key actors and implementation of the CEPA Programme

The indicative list of key actors in the Convention's CEPA Programme from paragraph 6 of the CEPA Programme is reproduced below. To assist Parties in identifying actors and monitoring implementation, the table below collates a summary of the Key Result Areas in the Programme and indicates suggested actors from the indicative list ( ). Additional columns are provided for other key implementers that may be identified. For each actor, two columns are provided, the first to identify their involvement in a particular Key Result Areas, and the second to be used to track implementation. If desired, the level of implementation, whether national (N), catchment (C), or local (L) could be noted in this column.

AA: The Administrative Authority in each country
CEPA: The Convention's CEPA National Focal Points
NRC: National Ramsar Committee / National Wetlands Committee (or equivalent bodies) that should be in place in each Party
STRP: The Scientific and Technical Review Panel, its CEPA Expert and its network of National Focal Points
Secretariat: The Ramsar Convention Secretariat
IOPs: International Organization Partners, at present BirdLife International, , the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Wetlands International, The World Conservation Union (IUCN), and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International
RRCs: The Ramsar Regional Centres endorsed by the Convention as Ramsar Regional Initiatives
OCs: Other collaborators, such as national non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations, including organizations with which Ramsar has agreements in place

Key Result Areas

AA

NWC

CEPA
NFPs

STRP

IOPs

RRCs

OCs

Secr’t

       

1.1.1

Campaigns, programmes or projects have been undertaken with key partners to raise awareness, build community support, & promote stewardship approaches towards wetlands.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.1.2

WWD has been celebrated with national & local events & promotions, & awareness-raising resource materials have been distributed.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.1.3

Collaboration with the media has helped to inform decision-makers, key wetland users, & the broader society about the values & benefits of wetlands.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.1.4

Appropriate Ramsar sites have been promoted as ‘demonstration sites’ for the wise use principle, & these sites are suitably equipped in terms of capacity, signage, and interpretive materials.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.2.1

Pilot projects have been developed & evaluated for a range of approaches for applying CEPA in promoting wise use, in particular involving those who make a direct use of wetland resources.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.2.2

Existing CEPA programmes and case studies have been reviewed & the lessons learned have been documented.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.2.3

The findings & conclusions drawn from Actions 1.2.1 & 1.2.2 have been made available to Parties & the broader community through appropriate mechanisms.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.3.1

CEPA is integrated into all relevant Convention work programmes, including joint work plans with other conventions & organizations, & included in the development of all further Ramsar guidance for Parties.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.3.2

Where appropriate, wetland CEPA has been integrated into the business of national & regional wetland, biodiversity, forestry, agriculture, irrigation, power generation, mining, tourism, and fisheries committees & other relevant policy and planning committees where they exist.

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.3.3

Through collaboration globally & nationally, synergy has been encouraged with the CEPA activities of other international conventions & programmes.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.3.4

Major stakeholders have collaborated to integrate wetland CEPA into relevant regional, national, catchment & local wetland & other appropriate sectoral policies, strategies, plans & programmes, such as those for biodiversity conservation, water management, fisheries, poverty reduction, etc.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.4.1

Case studies have been documented that show the positive role of CEPA in local management activities & the critical role of CEPA tools and skills in participatory wetland management; these have been made available to the Ramsar Secretariat for distribution to Parties and others.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.4.2

Multi-stakeholder bodies are in place to guide & inform catchment/river basin & local wetland-related planning & management, & these bodies include appropriate expertise in CEPA.

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.4.3

Catchment/river basin planning & management documents include CEPA & capacity building as central processes in the delivery of overall water & wetland management objectives.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

1.4.4

Where they do not already exist, the appropriate strategies & actions for CEPA have been introduced into site management plans.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.1.1

Parties have appointed suitably qualified persons as Government & NGO CEPA NFPs & advised the Secretariat of the persons; the CEPA NFPs should be members of National Wetland Committees where these exist. Where appropriate, Parties have appointed more than one NGO Focal Point.

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.1.2

A national Wetland CEPA Task Force has been established (if no other mechanisms exist for this purpose), including key stakeholder & NGO participation, & a review of needs, skills, expertise & options has been undertaken & priorities set for the co-development and implementation of this programme of work.

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.1.3

National CEPA Focal Points have been encouraged to collaborate with wetland & other education centres and, as appropriate, a representative of such centres has been included on Wetland CEPA Task Force or other planning bodies.

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.1.4

A national (or subnational, catchment or local) CEPA Action Plan has been formulated, drawing upon the CEPA toolkit & the Convention’s guidelines on participatory management, & the conclusions to emerge from 2.1.2 above have been incorporated. A copy of the Plan has been sent to the Secretariat.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.2.1

Attention has been given to the effectiveness of communication & information-sharing systems among relevant government ministries, departments and agencies, & key stakeholders, & mechanisms have been developed to address any shortcomings.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.2.2

Regular updating of the Convention’s Web site with appropriate materials, including key CEPA pages and other resource materials, ensure that these remain an information source for the CEPA Programme globally.

Ÿ

 

2.2.3

Ramsar’s IOPs, especially IUCN’s CEC, and others have been encouraged to make suitable resource materials & information available on effective CEPA approaches.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.2.4

Resource materials to support wetland CEPA actions continue to be produced, distributed & shared.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.2.5

The Ramsar global e-mail networks include Ramsar AAs, CEPA NFPs, CEPA professionals, Ramsar site managers, facilities dedicated to environmental education & awareness raising, & local stakeholders have been maintained and expanded. Similar national e-groups & the linking of these with the global network, have been established & supported.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.2.6

An on-line searchable listing of CEPA expertise & CEPA Focal Points has been established & maintained to assist CEPA at national & international levels, & this service has been promoted to assist CEPA programmes and activities.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.2.7.

Ramsar electronic photolibrary has been established to support global, national & local efforts to raise awareness & appreciation of wetland resources & how these can be used wisely

Ÿ

 

2.3.1

Education centres have been established at Ramsar & other wetland sites to provide focal points for local & national CEPA activities.

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.3.2

The capacity of existing centres at wetlands & the development of new centres to deliver high quality CEPA programmes has been supported & enhanced.

 

2.3.3

Where wetland education centres exist, the information they present has been reviewed to ensure that it is helping to promote the Convention; the centres have helped to foster communication &, where appropriate, participation among local wetland management ‘actors’ & stakeholders.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.3.4

Wetland education centres have been encouraged to participate in the WLI network of WWT, UK.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

2.3.5

Efforts have been made to promote & resource the twinning of wetland education centres to encourage the exchange & transfer of information & expertise among centres in developed countries & those in developing countries & countries in transition.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

3.1.1

A review has been carried out of current national needs & capacities in wetland CEPA, including in relation to the establishment & operations of wetland education centres, & this has been used to define training & capacity-building priorities within the national wetland CEPA action plan, including training for the CEPA NFPs.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

3.1.2

In collaboration with the Advisory Board on Capacity Building & Ramsar’s IOPs, sources of expert wetland information & training opportunities have been identified.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

3.1.3

Resources have been sought to support the training & capacity building identified as priorities, ensuring that key groups such as women, indigenous & rural communities have not been overlooked.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

3.2.1

Active participation as an effective process for building skills for wetland management is nationally recognized.

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

3.2.2

Participation of stakeholder groups with cultural or economic links to wetlands or those communities who depend on the wetlands for their livelihoods is given a high priority & is promoted at the national level.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 

3.2.3

Where local wetland knowledge is held by indigenous & local communities, this knowledge is respected & integrated into site management plans.

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

Ÿ

 


Appendix 4

Possible target groups and stakeholders of the CEPA Programme of the Convention on Wetlands

1. There are a large number of possible target groups for this CEPA Programme which fall within the broadest category of the general community or civil society. To assist Contracting Parties and others using this Programme to decide on the actions they will take, this Appendix describes 27 subgroups of civil society which have been identified as those people who can make a significant and immediate difference in the status and long-term sustainability of wetlands.

2. In developing national or local programmes of action based on this CEPA Programme, Contracting Parties and others are urged to take this Appendix into consideration for their own situations in determining which of these are their highest priority target groups.

3. A fundamental assumption of the CEPA Programme is that, as a consequence of the actions taken in response to it, there will be an increasing number of "actors" who become agents, ambassadors or advocates for the Convention on Wetlands and the principles it seeks to encourage. Support for the CEPA Programme should therefore be seen as an investment which aims to help decision-makers and mobilise local-scale actions directed at achieving the conservation and wise use of wetlands.

A) PEOPLE IN GENERAL

Target Group/Individuals

Rationale

Landowners (especially those who are responsible for managing wetlands)

These are the people who are making decisions which impact directly upon wetlands. Parties and Ramsar must inform them and provide them with access to expert information and expertise.

National and local non-government organizations

In many countries local NGOs are vital for achieving action. They need to have expert information and expertise available to them.

Indigenous people and local communities

 

Many indigenous people and local communities associated with wetlands have great knowledge of managing these ecosystems in a sustainable way, and in some instances have an ongoing cultural association with wetlands. Ramsar should aim to encourage the sharing of this experience with other wetland managers and acknowledge indigenous peoples’ stewardship of wetlands.

Women

 

Engaging more women in wetland management is a priority, as in many cultures they tend to be more entrepreneurial in the family unit and more amenable to changing lifestyle habits. They may also tend to communicate more often with the children within the family.

Children

 

Children are the next generation of environmental managers and caretakers, and Ramsar must ensure that they are aware of the importance of wetlands and how to use them wisely. Children can also become teachers of their parents through their own education.

Those responsible for electronic and print media

Conveying positive and informative messages about wetlands to the general community can be accelerated through news and other stories in the electronic and print media.

Community leaders and prominent people – athletes, sports people, religious leaders, artists, royalty, teachers, opinion leaders, etc.

Community leaders can use their public profile to draw attention to issues, and those who have empathy for wetland conservation may be ideal ambassadors to promote the Ramsar message.

 B) GOVERNMENTS AT ALL LEVELS

Target Group/Individuals

Rationale

Environmental policy makers and planners within local administrations, provincial/ state and national government administrations.

 

These officials are key decision-makers at the local level and subregional and national scales. Their actions can impact directly on wetlands, positively or negatively, either at the local level or catchment/river basin scale.

Wetland site managers (wardens, rangers, etc.) within local, provincial/state and national government administrations, including catchment or river basin authorities.

These people have a special need to receive advice on the best practices in managing wetland ecosystems, and on gaining public support and participation for their work, especially where they are responsible for managing a Ramsar site. Site managers also have valuable first-hand experience with wetland management, and finding ways to allow these experiences to be shared between them and with others is a priority.

National Administrative Authorities of the Ramsar Convention

They should have the best information at their disposal for efficient application and dissemination.

National Administrative Authorities and Focal Points for other environment-related conventions

 

If there is to be a more integrated approach to managing land and water resources, including wetlands, there is a need to create greater understanding of and empathy for the Ramsar Convention among those implementing the other conventions.

National consultative and advisory committees for the Ramsar Convention and other environment-related conventions (such as National Ramsar Committees).

 

Similarly, there is a need to create greater understanding of and empathy for the Ramsar Convention among those who are advising governments on implementation of Ramsar and the other conventions.

The Ministers responsible for all sustainable development and education portfolios and environment-related conventions as well as Members of Parliament - National, State/Provincial and local.

Ramsar needs to gain the support of these Ministers and all government members, for they have direct input to policy setting, budget allocation, etc. Those Members of Parliament in the opposition parties may be in this position in the future.

National aid agencies, bilateral donors

The Convention needs to ensure that there is a good general understanding about what it does within those organizations that are dealing with governments on a range of sustainable development issues. Ramsar must ensure that the relevant officials are well briefed and able to support Ramsar principles through on-ground projects in the Contracting Parties.

Ambassadors and the staff of overseas missions.

It is important that these officials fully understand the Ramsar Convention and its modus operandi so that national governments can be better informed.

 C) INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Target Group/Individuals

Rationale

Global organizations – World Bank, Global Environment Facility, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme, Global Water Partnership, etc.

The Convention needs to ensure that there is a good general understanding about what it does within those organizations that are dealing with governments on range of sustainable development issues. Where the organizations have funding programmes, Ramsar must ensure that the relevant officials are well briefed and able to support Ramsar principles through on-ground projects in the Contracting Parties.

Regional organizations – South Pacific Regional Environment Program, European Commission, Southern Africa Development Community, Regional Development Banks, ASEAN Environmental Programme, etc.

As above.

Global NGO partners and other international and regional NGOs

Ramsar’s four official NGO partners (IUCN, WWF, Wetlands International, and BirdLife) are all active and effective in promoting the Ramsar Convention. There is a need to involve more of these regional and international NGOs in communicating the Ramsar message.

 The secretariats of other environment-related instruments (CBD, CCD, CMS, FCCC, CITES, World Heritage, MAB)

This is essential if there is to be increasing synergy among the conventions at the global and national scales.

 D) THE BUSINESS SECTOR

Target Group/Individuals

Rationale

Potential sponsors, supporters

Ramsar promotes sustainable use of wetlands and must therefore engage with the business sectors to ensure that the activities being undertaken by them are not acting contrary to the objectives of the Convention.

Key business sectors

·        Water and sanitation

·        Irrigation and water supply

·        Agriculture

·        Mining

·        Forestry

·        Fishing

·        Environmental managers

·        Tourism

·        Waste disposal

·        Energy

Within the business sectors these, and some others, are the industries which have the potential for major negative impacts on wetlands. Ramsar must promote practices within these industries to ensure that their activities are not resulting in wetland loss.

Professional Associations

Ramsar should encourage the application of Ramsar wise use practices through these professional associations.

 E) THE EDUCATION SECTOR AND LEARNING INSTITUTIONS

Target Group/Individuals

Rationale

Education ministries, curriculum development authorities, examination boards and universities, in-service trainers, etc.

All of these can assist in gaining the inclusion of wetland conservation and wise use issues in school and other formal curricula.

National and international teachers’ associations

The incorporation of Ramsar principles into curricula and learning programmes generally can be accelerated through working collaboratively with teacher associations.

National and international networks, associations and councils of environmental education

Wetlands and water issues can be incorporated into the curricula and other materials being developed by these organizations.

Wetland/ Environment Centres, Zoos, Aquaria, Botanic Gardens, etc.

 

These are ideal venues for promoting the Ramsar message and efforts should be intensified, in order to have suitable information and materials and programmes available within them.

National and international networks of libraries.

 

The library networks provide an excellent avenue for making information on Ramsar and wetlands more accessible to the general community.


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