National Report of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia for COP7

16/11/1998

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National Report prepared for the 7th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971)

 Implementation of the Ramsar Convention in general, and of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 1997-2002 in particular, during the period since the National Report was prepared in 1995 for Ramsar COP6

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Note: Some parts of the slavic character set, used in the personal and place names, have evidently got lost in the file conversions; we'll try to solve this as time permits.

Contracting Party Savezna Republika Jugoslavija (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
Designated Ramsar Administrative Authority  
Full name of the institution Federal Ministry for Development, Science and Environment, FR Yugoslavia
Name and title of the head of the institution Professor Jago{ ZELENOVI], Ph.D.
Mailing address for the head of the institution Yugoslavia, 11070 Beograd, Bul. Lenjina 2
Telephone +381 11 635910
Fax +381 11 3112909
E-mail  
Name and title (if different) of the designated contact officer for Ramsar Convention matters Milutin Pantovi} BS, biologist, senior adviser, Department for Environment, Federal Ministry for Development, Science and Environment
Mailing address (if different) for the designated contact officer Federal Ministry for Development, Science and Environment, Yugoslavia, 11000 Beograd, Bul. Lenjina 2
Telephone ++381 11 3114240/ext. 2434
Fax ++381 11 3112909
E-mail panta@hera.smrnzs.sv.gov.yu

Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 1
To progress towards universal membership of the Convention.

1.1 Describe any actions your government has taken (such as hosting regional or subregional meetings/consultations, working cooperatively with neighbouring countries on transfrontier wetland sites) to encourage others to join the Convention.

------


Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 2
To achieve the wise use of wetlands by implementing and further developing the Ramsar Wise Use Guidelines.

2.1 Has a National Wetland Policy/Strategy/Action Plan been developed, or is one being developed or planned for the near future? If so:

The National Wetland Policy/Strategy/Action Plan has not been developed yet, but general prepositions for it are to be found in the Resolution on the policy of biodiversity conservation in the FR Yugoslavia, adopted by Yugoslav Federal Government in 1993. The Plan of Activities of the National Ramsar Committee, verified by the Federal Ministry, comprises the start of development of the Strategy of Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wetlands in FR Yugoslavia in 1998.

a. What are/will be its main features?

  • Purposes: To plan and to prepare operationalisation and implementation of Ramsar Convention and of Recommendations of COPs in FR Yugoslavia.
  • Objectives: To develop National Ramsar Strategy and Action Plans for wetland conservation in FR Yugoslavia.
  • Way of developing: A Project.
  • Coordinator: Yugoslav National Ramsar Committee.
  • Subjects of Project realization: relevant institutions and experts.

b. Was it, or is it, intended that the Policy/Strategy/Action Plan be adopted by the whole of Government, the Minister responsible for Ramsar matters or through some other process. Please describe.

Whole Federal Government adopts the proposal developed by National Ramsar Committee, verified by Federal Ministry for Development, Science and Environment.

c. How does it relate/will it relate to other national environmental/ conservation planning initiatives (e.g., National Environmental Action Plans, National Biodiversity Action Plans, National Conservation Strategies)?

Planned Strategy will be developed matching the frame of the Resolution on the policy of biodiversity conservation in the FR Yugoslavia, and the Resolution of the environmental protection, where conservation of wetlands is elaborated within the conservation of natural heritage, conservation of waters and conservation of fragile ecosystems. Threatened wetland species, according to the criteria that are being developed by Federal Ministry, will be included in the Yugoslav Red Data Book (Federal project 1994-1999).

2.2 If a policy is in place, how much progress has been made in its implementation, and what are the major difficulties being encountered in doing so?

The activities undertaken so far have stimulated an updating of files on the already designated Ramsar sites as well as the designation of new ones (Carska Bara-Stari Begej and The Skadar Lake). The establishing of a number of new nature reserves on wetlands (Ponjavica, Zasavica, the Koviljsko-petrovaradinski Rit) has been incited, along with the reviewing of a number of the previously established ones (Gornje Podunavlje -- upper Danube alluvial zone, Donje Podunavlje -- lower Danube alluvial zone, etc.). The problems encountered: (1) executive legislation concerning wetland conservation is in force on the federal unit level, rather than on the federal level, wherefore the federal government policy is only indirectly implemented on the local level; (2) the international isolation of the FR Yugoslavia, both official and unofficial, does not have an encouraging impact on the implementation of international recommendations; (3) due to the difficult social-economic situation, to a great extent induced by the above, it is harder to give priority to wetlands conservation programs in allocating budget resources.

2.3 If a Policy/Strategy/Action Plan is in place, is the responsibility for implementing it with :

a. a single Government Ministry,
b. a committee drawn from several Ministries, or
c. a cross-sectoral committee?

2.4 For countries with Federal systems of Government, are there Wetland Policies/Strategies/Plans in place, being developed or planned for the provincial/state or regional levels of Government? Yes/No   If yes, please give details.

The development of the National Wetland Strategy is planned at the federal level. Republics (federal units) do not plan to develop its own Wetland Policy/Strategy, considering that one of outputs of the Strategy of Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wetlands in FR Yugoslavia will be the Action Plans of its implementation in republics (federal units).

2.5 Has a review of legislation and practices which impact on wetlands been carried out, and if so, has this resulted in any changes which assist with implementation of the Ramsar Convention? Please describe these.

Federal level:

At the federal level, apart from separate laws on water resources management, governing the utilization of waters of national interest and internationally shared waters, as well as the hydrometeorological affairs of national interest, of special importance in this context is the Federal Law on Environmental Protection passed by the Parliament of the FR Yugoslavia in May this year. The law provides for the biodiversity and natural resources conservation, wise use and promotion in compliance with the appropriate standards, so as to provide for their sustained conservation and promotion.

Federal unit level:

The Republics of Serbia and Montenegro have made up no formal review of the pertinent analyses and legislation, but existing system framework provides a basis for implementation of the Ramsar Convention, i. e. Ramsar Strategic Plan, which has given certain results, so far.

Regulations and planning documents of the Republic of Serbia:

Regional planning acts and sector strategies/resource management plans in place take into account the obligations arising from the Ramsar Convention, and certain results have been achieved in this context.

Laws:

1. Law on Environmental Protection (1991), providing a legal framework for the natural resources conservation, including wetlands, constituting a basis for developing separate regulations on the conservation of Ramsar sites within the territory of the Republic of Serbia, relevant governmental decrees and decisions by municipal authorities on the conservation of natural resources, including the areas designated as Ramsar sites. The basic legal principles governing the implementation of the Ramsar Convention are as follows:

  • Balanced economic development, protection and development of environment and improvement of quality of life is secured by means of physical and town planning, by development plans, by the management of living space, by the management of natural resources, via economic policy measures and other measures (Article 3)
  • Use of natural resources, construction of structures of other activity may be carried out under the condition that they cause no permanent damage, no significant changes of landscape, no pollution, no other forms of environmental degradation. The investor is bound to carry out an analysis and to quantify the environmental impact of given activity, to plan and implement measures in order to prevent jeopardy of the environment or to plan measures of land restoration or rehabilitation and secure the implementation of prescribed norms (Article 4).

Certain natural wealths are, in the general interest, placed under protection, on the basis of scientific and expertise analysis, by acts of competent bodies, according to the conditions, in manner and in conformity to the procedure prescribed by this Low (Article 5).

Enterprises and other economic entities are bound to pursue their activity and to secure: the rational use of natural resources and energy; to calculate environmental protection costs in their investment and production expenditures; to monitor the impact of their activity on the status of environment (Article 6).

Physical planning of areas, land use planning, utilization of natural resources, of flora and fauna, determined by regional planning schemes and town urban plans as well as by other plans (plans of management and surveys of use of agricultural land, the surveys for forests, water husbandry, hunting and fishing, and other plans) must be based on the following obligations: (1) to conserve and develop natural resources to the greatest possible extent, in case they are non-renewable to use them rationally; (2) to secure protection and the unhindered functioning of the protected natural resources with their protected environment (buffer zones) and to preserve to the greatest possible extent the habitats of wild plant and animal species and their communities; (3) to secure conditions for rest and recreation of humans; (4) to establish the measures for protection against accidents and large scale naturaldisasters; (5) to present the existing situation concerning items 1, 2, 3, 4, of this Article and the planned situation with necessary measures for the implementation of plans (Article 14).

Institute for nature protection of Serbia is entrusted to manage protection of natural wealths and undertakes in particular: determination of conditions of protection and submission of data concerning protected natural resources in connection with procedures for the elaboration of physical plans and surveys (in respect of forest, water resources management, management of hunting and fishing etc.); manages the Register of protected natural resources with the accompanying documentation; prepares expert proposals, analyses, elaborates and guidelines for the determination of measures for the conservation and protection of natural wealths, which are to be submitted to the competent body during the procedure of verification of environmental impact assessments; cooperates with international organizations for environmental (nature) protection, etc.

2. Law on Waters, governing water protection and utilization and providing for obligatory adoption of water management plans (principles of water management - for the republican level and for river systems), with the accompanying regulations on water classification and categorization of watercourses relative to quality, on water quality standards, on the compulsory water quality monitoring, etc.

3. Law on the Protection and Use of Agricultural Land, with the accompanying regulations on the criteria for establishing the land quality relative to the content of harmful and hazardous contaminants, on the criteria for establishing the quality of irrigation waters, with provisions imposing an obligation to adopt the plans of agricultural management (principles of agricultural management -- for the republic and the municipal levels).

4. Law on Forest Management, imposing an obligation of adopting forest management plans for certain forest areas (forest land and forests), and prescribing the procedure and content thereof.

5. Law on Fishing, providing a basis for establishing fishing waters/areas and adopting the management plans for such waters (the fishing-areas conservation and promotion programs).

6. Laws on regional planning and on the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia.

Planning acts on land use and resource management:

  • regional and urban development plans (Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia, covering the whole territory of the Republic, subordinate regional plans -- covering specific regions, infrastructural facilities, national parks, etc., and urban development plans for towns and cities);
  • principles of water resources management (for the whole territory of Serbia and specific water systems/catchment areas, specified by the law);
  • principles of agricultural management (for the whole territory of Serbia, and for the municipal territories);
  • principles of forest management (general: for the whole territory of Serbia and the forest areas specified by the law; specific: for estates in forest areas as well as private forests);
  • hunting-grounds managment plans (for the hunting grounds specified based on the Law on Hunting);
  • protection and development programs for the protected natural resources (for the established national parks, parks of nature, nature reserves, areas of special ecological value, etc.)

The absence of a national strategy as well as lacking of a national inventory of the Ramsar sites are the limiting factors in terms of consistent implementation of the Convention, i.e. the Ramsar Strategic Plan, as well as for the implementation of the policy of conservation of the Ramsar sites designated as such by the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia of 1996.

Legislation of the Republic of Montenegro:

1. Law on Environmental Protection (1996), providing a legal framework for environmental protection in the Republic of Montenegro. Regarding wetland conservation, apart from those imposing certain bans and restrictions, among important provisions of the Law are those imposing an obligation for carrying out Environmental Impact Assessments for any such activity that can cause pollution or other environmental hazard.

2. Law on Nature Protection (1977, 1982), governing the affairs related with the nature protection, especially protected areas and the rare, endangered or endemic plant and animal species.

3. Law on National Parks (1991), significant for the Skadar Lake National Park, one of the four national parks in Montenegro and the only Montenegrin wetland included in the Ramsar List. Important provisions of the Law, relevant for the Skadar Lake National Park, are those imposing bans and restrictions on utilization of its resources and governing the mechanisms of the management of this wetland. (Based on the Special-Status Areas Regional Plan - the PPPN, a Program of National Parks Protection and Development (developed to the same effect as the Plan of Management required by the Resolution 5.7 V CoP Kushiro, Japan, 1993 and Recommendation 6.13 -- VI CoP, Brisbane, Australia, 1996), effective for a five-year period, with annual programs adopted to the effect of its implementation.

4. Law on Regional Planning and Land Use (1995) sets the criteria for developing coordinated regional and town plans, their implementation as well as the competences and tasks concerning their adoption. At the republic level, it is obligatory to adopt the Master Plan of the Republic of Montenegro, the Special-Status Areas Regional Plan (PPPN) for the national parks and marine resources, while on the local level, units of local self-government have the obligation to adopt local plans of land use.

The Regional Plans are adopted so as to is to establish, in accordance with the natural and social needs and potential, as well as with long-term economic development objectives, the principles of land use within the respective territories and to provide guidelines for regional development. All the subordinate regional plans must be brought into accord with the higher-level regional plans. Besides, all the regional plans must be submitted for revision and assessment by relevant experts. The republican legislation also provides for a public debate, which has to be organized prior to the adoption of any regional plan by the competent legislative body (the Republican Parliament, i.e. the municipal assembly), securing the participation of the public in decision-making regarding the regional plans.

Other laws governing individual segments relevant to the wise use and conservation of wetlands are: Law on Waters (1995), Law on Agricultural Land (1992), Law on Forests (1994), Law on Freshwater Fishing (1992), Law on Marine Fishing (1992), Law on Marine Resources (1992), etc.

2.6 Describe the efforts made in your country to have wetlands considered in integrated land/water and coastal zone planning and management processes at the following levels:

a. national

a) Federal level

The Policy of Development of FR Yugoslavia by the Year of 2005 incorporates basic principles and measures contained in the Resolution on Environmental Protection and Resolution on Biodiversity Conservation in FR Yugoslavia, implicitly incorporating the sections pertaining to the wetlands conservation. These issues are explicitly incorporated in the planning and development acts of the federal units.

b) Federal unit level

The Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia, 1996 (Official Gazette of the R Serbia, No. 13/96, March 22), focuses on the conservation, wise use and protection of natural resources, with special emphasis on water resources. As the framework for sustainable planning of land use and organization in Serbia, the Plan emphasizes that environmental protection and ecological requirements are an important limiting factor in the planning of development activities and that the promotion and protection of valuable natural heritage and conservation of larger areas for special use, where natural wealths are highly significant for supporting biodiversity and quality of the environment.

The regional-planning objectives of water use and protection are, inter alia:

  • protection and promotion of water quality with a view to achieving the required water quality levels, both for surface and ground waters; priorities also include the waters within protected areas;
  • promotion of aquatic ecosystems by conserving wetlands.

Special emphasis is given to the following objectives:

  • protection of special environmental values; it is planned that the protection of sites of special natural values and the biodiversity conservation in general (by establishing databases and inventories, categorization of biodiversity elements as well and identification of threats, with an assessment of trends of changes and spontaneous successions) should be based on a systematic regional, town and environmental planning;
  • continuation and extending of the international cooperation in the field of transfrontier areas of mutual ecological interest.

The Plan identifies specific tasks and areas of special natural values. In the planning period (by 2010), these areas will be delimited, they will be assigned special status, with defined protection regimes based on previous research and assessments, with established priority lists, with a view to establishing a network of wetland areas protected in compliance with the Ramsar criteria. The Plan provides for the protection of watercourses and the riverine zones, the protection of marshes, as well as specific brackish wetlands, the intensive protection of autochthonous woodlands in Vojvodina; then, mountain-areas protection (along with the protection of water sources and first-category watercourses), as well as the protection of wetlands in the Morava, Sava and Danube river valleys in Central Serbia and protection of highly valuable mountain areas and nature restoration and rehabilitation in degraded areas in Kosovo and Metohija.

Beside the wetlands already included in the Ramsar List (Obedska Bara, Luda{ Lake and Stari Begej - Carska Bara), the following wetlands are designated for inclusion in the List:

  • parts of upper and lower Danube alluvial zone (Gornje Podunavlje, Donje Podunavlje)
  • Koviljsko-petrovaradinski Rit
  • marshlands around Pan~evo and Belgrade; and
  • system of marshlands between the Deliblatska Pe{~ara and the confluence of the Morava and Danube rivers.

The Draft of Water Resources Management plan of the Republic of Serbia identify general objectives and provide guidelines for the natural-resources conservation, without explicitly mentioning the Ramsar sites.

This is another document (which is of key importance for the Ramsar site conservation) where the absence of a national strategy and a national inventory of the Ramsar sites is a limiting factor for a consistent implementation of the Convention. Therefore, it cannot be expected that the final text of the of Water Resource Management Plan of the Republic of Serbia will identify specific objectives, protection requirements, or guidelines for wise use of the Ramsar sites.

The Master Plan of the Republic of Montenegro was adopted in 1985 and amended in 1997 (Resolution on amending the Regional Plan of the Republic of Montenegro by 2000, "Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro", no. 17/97).

The goals and courses of development of Montenegro established by the Regional Plan pertaining to wetlands, by way of integrated land, water and coastal areas planning and management, are defined as follows:

  • rational land use through harmonized distribution of economic activities, social services and infrastructural facilities (item 1)
  • continuation and promotion of development, accompanied with environmental protection and wise planning of land use (item 5)
  • creating conditions for the implementation of stringent measures for agricultural land protection (item 6)
  • monitoring and control of seismic and other natural hazards (item 9).

The Master Plan sections concerning natural-resources protection include, inter alia, sandy and gravely beaches along the Montenegrin coastline (cca 113,900 ha) and along the banks of the Skadar Lake. These Master Plan sections contain specific requirements for wetlands protection, according to the following pattern:

  • protected zones of surface waters encompassing: river springs (included among densely forested areas of relatively unaffected environment), water supply areas, with minimum restriction radius of 300m, as well as water source areas where it is necessary to avoid activities affecting the ground waters quality; these protected zones have been delimited and sized according to the local geological conditions.

Flood control measures have been adopted for the following wetlands: the Skadar Lake (by controlling the Bojana river), the Lim river (by controlling the river bed and construction of the Plav reservoire and a suitable embankment), the Mora~a river (by river bed control and embankment construction), while for the Poljas (Nik{i}ko, Cetinjsko and Njegu{ko Polje) and part of coastal areas, flood control can be carried out by means of ditches and drainage channels and their regular maintenance, as well as by appropriate technical action, especially in the region of Cetinje.

Regarding the Skadar Lake (Master Plan zone 14), the following development priorities are established: tourist and recreation facilities, agriculture (including the potential arising from water level control) and fishing (under stringent control, so as to preserve ecological balance). The Guidelines for Master Plan realization, inter alia, provide for the observance and implementation of the obligations arising from the international agreements, conventions and other documents signed and ratified by the FRY, as well as implementation of recent breakthroughs in the field of environmental development and protection (item 4).

The preparation of an inventory of areas of special natural value (including wetlands) and the establishment of a suitable and unified information system. Successful realization of the above tasks requires certain adaptments and personnel training within the governmental agencies and institutions involved in the process (item 8).

b. provincial
c. local

Guidelines for the incorporation of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia into the lower-level regional plans and urban development town plans, regarding wetlands conservation:

  • regional plans are to designate areas of land intended for restoration and rehabilitation;
  • in order to ensure the conservation of flora and fauna, and especially the migratory species, it is essential to mutually connect vegetation corridors, as well as to connect them with the adjacent forest and marshland zones and to ensure the overcoming of barriers (traffic corridors, etc.);
  • especially valuable natural wealths are to be identified and evaluated; zones of special protection are to be designated, and measures for their protection and wise use will be adopted;
  • in restoration of harmed areas, beside the technical protection measures, biological protection measures will be implemented as well, primarily aiming at the renewal of the area, enhancement of its ecological stability and diversity and launching a progradation process by using autochthonous plant and animal species;
  • Environmental Impact Assessment is compulsory prior to undertaking any construction or other works within the established protected areas. Within protected areas, no construction or other works can be undertaken unless it is harmonized with the goals and measures laid down by legal documents, regional plans of the special status area as well as the protection and development programs;
  • in the areas proposed to become protected, any construction or other works or land use prior to the adoption of appropriate decisions can only be performed upon evaluation of natural values and environmental impact assessment - if the facilities to be constructed and works to be undertaken may affect the characteristics of the environment substantially;
  • in the first-category protection zone, any use of natural resources is banned, including any other land use and activities other than scientific research and educational activities at limited scale;
  • for any protected, rare or endangered species, regional and town plans have to establish its habitat limits as well as an appropriate protection regime for the ecosystem to which it belongs;
  • in regional and town plans it is compulsory to envisage protection regimes in protected areas, based on the resources available to the responsible services.

Guidelines for the lower-level Master Plan implementation in Montenegro provide for the following:

  • Identifying, within the regional plans of the local self-government units, in accordance with the Master Plan basic principles, of the construction, agricultural and forest lands and establishing the requirements for their use. Such land use planning should incorporate elaborate lists of nature reserves, special-status areas, agricultural land, land for tourism and recreation … (item 5)

2.7 Have there been any publications produced, or practices documented, which could assist other countries to promote and improve the application of the Ramsar Wise Use of Wetlands Guidelines? Yes/No   If Yes, please provide details and copies.

No.

2.8 Noting COP6 Recommendation 6.14 relating to toxic chemicals and pollution, please advise of the actions taken since then "to remedy and to prevent pollution impacts affecting Ramsar sites and other wetlands" (Operative paragraph 9).

Federal level:

Systematic water quality control falls under the competence of the Federal Hydro-meteorological Bureau and is based on the Law on Hydro-meteorological Affairs of National Interest, while an appropriate bylaw establishes the National network of stations for the systematic monitoring of surface-waters quality. The monitored parameters are specified by separate rules on water classification and on maximum allowed concentration of certain contaminants. These regulations provide for water standardization only for the waters to be used in water supply systems, recreation, industry and agriculture, without suitable standards for aquatic ecosystem protection and are only concerned with chemical, microbiological, radioactive and biological content. Although the Decision on Allowed Maximum Concentrations specifies a total of 233 contaminants, due to a shortage of funding and problems with supplying the necessary monitoring instrumentation, the current systematic control encompasses only 32 of them.

Federal unit level:

In the Republic of Serbia there have been no specific activities concerning the testing of toxic chemicals and other contaminants in the waters within Ramsar sites. However, these sites are included in the systematic water quality control. The systematic water quality control includes the control of toxic materials in watercourses and in a number of stagnant waters (lakes and ponds, both natural and artificial), according to the monitoring plans adopted by the Government of the Republic of Serbia for biannual periods and implemented by the Republican Hydro-meteorological Institute of Serbia (HMZS). All watercourses within the territory of Serbia are included in the systematic water quality control, and the water is classified relative to its physical and chemical characteristics, contaminant content (toxic and other harmful pollutants), biological and bacteriological characteristics: 156 sampling points in 83 watercourses are tested on a monthly basis; 23 posts in 14 watercourses are tested on a weekly basis; 10 posts in 8 watercourses are tested on a daily basis; 33 artificial ponds and natural lakes are tested on the annual basis. According to the HMZS’s annual report, in the course of 1997 the water quality in watercourses, just like in the previous years, is below the required level (according to decrees on water classification and categorization of watercourses). In most artificial and natural lakes water quality is satisfactory, with instances of oxygen depletion at greater depths, i.e. of moderate eutrophication -- increase of the "a" chlorophyll. In a number of isolated cases, toxic chemicals were discovered (Hg, Zn), but in low concentrations. In some shallow lakes and reservoirs there is considerable eutrophication.

In Montenegro, systematic water quality monitoring encompasses the control of toxic contaminants in watercourses, marine coastal zones and the Skadar Lake, in accordance with the monitoring program adopted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Resources Management, upon consulting the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Republic of Montenegro. The plan is adopted for annual periods, and it is implemented by the Republican Hydro-meteorological Institute of Montenegro. This program envisages systematic water quality control in all watercourses and water classification relative to its physical and chemical characteristics, contaminant content, biological and bacteriological characteristics in 89 sampling points.

According to the annual reports for the past three years concerning the Skadar Lake, its waters remained within the required (2nd) class, with occasional aberrations at the Plavnica station and at the post south of the Vranjina bridge. In most other watercourses and in the coastal marine zone in the Republic, water quality varies and occasionally falls below the set standards. There were certain instances when toxic contaminants (PCBs) were discovered. In some shallow lakes and ponds there is considerable eutrophication.

Local level:

Beside the regular water quality monitoring (the systematic monitoring), special monitoring of the quality of waters within the wetlands included in the Ramsar List is also performed. The results are still unsatisfactory. For instance, water quality control results for the Luda{ Lake for 1997 are as follows: high concentration of organic matter (according to the BPK5 and HPK standards, the water quality was beyond classification), alkaline reaction of the water (pH value beyond classification), marked oversaturation (%O2) and increased mineral content. The Lake of Pali}: very high concentration of biodegradable matter in the water (HPK 3rd class, BPK 4th class), very high plankton production (disturbed oxygen balance and pH beyond classification), and high mineral content. Only smaller-scale activities were undertaken, with a view to improving water inflow during dry periods (Obedska Bara, Stari Begej-Carska Bara).

Luda{ Lake:

  • There is a continuous monitoring of 40 parameters of water quality since 1976, on 5 localities. An official Advisory Group for monitoring of water quality in Luda{ Lake has been established. Hydro-technical measures have been undertaken in 1995 - periodical water supply (during low water season) through the channel system Tisa River-Pali} Lake-Luda{ Lake.
  • Treatment of communal water of the Pali} settlement has been introduced in 1996, which previously entered directly into the Pali} Lake, and through the channel into the Luda{ Lake. The second (final) stage is plan for treatment of communal water of Subotica and surrounding settlements which will solve the problem of communal wastewater completely.

Stari Begej - Carska Bara:

  • Technical measures of cleaning the river bed of Stari Begej started at the beginning of 1998. The operation covered the area 30m wide, 100m long, depth of the layer removed was 0,5m. The aim of the operation was to decrease the process of eutrophication and to clear the path for the tourist boat.

Obedska Bara:

  • Collecting of communal water from the hotel "Obedska Bara", and its deposition into the reserve, was terminated in 1995/96. A closed system situated outside of the reserve was introduced with waste water being transported periodically from the site.
  • Monitoring of the surface water level started in 1995, on 10 measurement points in the Reserve and on contact points of channels and the Sava River.

In Montenegro, in the period 1992-1997, a targeted research was conducted focusing on the quolity of surface and ground waters of the Zeta river valley, adjacent to the Skadar Lake catchment area.

2.9 Describe what steps have been taken to incorporate wetland economic valuation techniques into natural resource planning and assessment actions.

Institute of Economic Sciences from Belgrade prepared the Study: "Econimc aspects of natural capital and nature resources valuation" in June 1997.

2.10 Is Environmental Impact Assessment for actions potentially impacting on wetlands required under legislation in your country? Yes/No   Yes

Federal level:

Pursuant to the Federal Law on the Environment, Article 20, for all the undertakings which may lead to environmental pollution, it is required to carry out an environmental impact assessment.

Federal unit level:

In the Republic of Serbia, the provision on compulsory environmental impact assessment prior to building any facilities or undertaking other construction works is contained in the Law on Environmental Protection (1991) and is implemented according to the appropriate Rule Book (1992), laying down a list of facilities/construction works requiring a prior environmental impact assessment. Before the adoption of the above legislation, the provisions requiring environmental impact assessment were contained in the laws on construction and land use, however, these laws did not provide for the procedure to be followed and they did not contain a list of facilities requiring approval.

In the Republic of Montenegro, environmental impact assessment procedure is also compulsory, as laid down by the Law on the Environment (1996). Based on this Law, two other relevant decrees were adopted -- Decree on Environmental Impact Assessment for Construction Activities (1997) and Instructions on the Content of the Report on Environmental Impact Assessment for Construction Activities (1997).

2.11 Is wetland restoration and rehabilitation considered a priority in your country? Yes/No.  If Yes, describe the actions that have been taken to identify wetlands in need of these actions and to mobilise resources for restoration or rehabilitation.

No.

2.12 Describe what actions have been taken to "encourage active and informed participation of local communities, including indigenous people, and in particular women, in the conservation and wise use of wetlands." (refer to Actions 2.7.1-4 in the Strategic Plan).

The Luda{ Lake:

The "Society of Friends of the Luda{ Lake" was established in 1997, and there is also a "Foundation for the Protection of the Luda{ Lake".

Ecological camps at Sunjok ^arda ("ethno-farm), with 200 participants every year, including the indigenous people. At "ethno-farm", demonstrations of ethnological and ecological advantages of the Luda{ Lake are organized, in cooperation with local people.

The Skadar Lake:

Indigenous people take part at the annual manifestation called "Days of the Skadar Lake".

2.13 Describe what actions have been taken to "encourage involvement of the private sector in the conservation and wise use of wetlands" (refer to Actions 2.8.1-4 in the Strategic Plan).

Important protected areas of aquatic ecosystems are managed by private and mixed (public and private joint stock) companies and agencies:

  • Nature reserve Uvac river canyon (an artificial lake in the river canyon) - the "Griffon Vulture" Fund for Predatory Birds Protection, Nova Varo{
  • Nature reserve Tre{njica river canyon -- Griffon Vulture Protection Society, Valjevo
  • Ponjavica wetland (marshland, reedbeds) - Public Enterprise "Omoljica", Omoljica
  • P~inja river valley - Public Enterprise "Vrelo", Bujanovac
  • Gradac river valley - Ecological Society "Gradac", Valjevo

Has this included a review of fiscal measures (taxation arrangements, etc.) to identify and remove disincentives and introduce incentives for wetlands conservation and wise use? Yes/No   If yes, please provide details.  Yes

Federal level:

Pursuant to the Law on Customs Duties ("Official Journal of the FRY", no. 45/92, 16/93, 50/93, 24/94 and 28/96), Decree on the exercise of the right to the exemption from duty ("Official Journal of the FR of Yugoslavia, no. 49/92, 28/95 and 21/97), the enterprises, governmental agencies, other organizations, communities and foundations are exempt from duty on imported goods provided that: their activities incorporate quality control of environmental elements (Law on Customs Duties, Article 26, Item 4); the goods are directly intended for environmental protection (Law on Customs Duties, Article 26, Item 8) the goods are free of charge and are intended for environmental protection (Law on Customs Duties, Article 26, Item 11). The first two of the above provisions are applicable if the imported commodities are not produced in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Federal Units level:

Pursuant to the Law on Citizens’ Income Tax (Official Gazette of the R Serbia, no. 43/94 and 20/98), Article 51, investments in environmental protection are recognized as expenditure in the Financial Statement, to a maximum of 3%, in aggregate. Besides, Article 63 recognizes accelerated depreciation for such investments, while Art. 36, Para. 1, Item 3, lays down that any privately owned land within an established nature reserve is exempted from land-income tax. Similarly, Articles 14 and 41 of the Law on Corporate Profit Tax (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, no. 43/94, 53/95 and 54/96) provide for the exemption from tax and recognition of accelerated depreciation for body corporates investing in environmental protection. At the same time, the Law on Excise and Turnover Tax (Official Gazette of the R. Serbia, no. 43/94), Article 40, Item 11, provides for the exemption from the turnover tax for the services concerned with the protection against water, air and land pollution, protection against noise and those aimed at energy conservation.

The privatization process in Montenegro, launched in 1992, has created general conditions for the involvement of private sector (both in terms of domestic and foreign investments) in all segments of the society, and therefore in the conservation and wise use of wetlands. However, there have been no investments so far regarding wetlands conservation and wise use, although there has been certain interest for such investments (establishment of fish ponds and revival of drained wetlands along the Montenegrin coast).


Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 3
To raise awareness of wetland values and functions throughout the world and at all levels

3.1 Is there a government-run national programme for Education and Public Awareness in your country which focuses on, or includes, wetlands? Yes/No?   If yes, what are the priority actions under this programme and who are the target groups? (Refer also to question 9.4)

Adults: A series of lectures at the "Kolarac" people’s university in Belgrade included a lecture on the Skadar Lake and another one on wetlands, encompassing a description of all the Ramsar sites.

3.2 Describe the steps taken to have wetlands issues and Ramsar’s Wise Use principles included as part of the curricula of educational institutions. Has this been at all levels of education (primary, secondary, tertiary and adult)? Please give details.

Within the curricula of the tertiary education, at the Faculty of Biology of the University of Belgrade there are certain subjects dealing with the protection of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity conservation (Hydroecology and protection of waters, Biodiversity conservation and protection, Environmental protection, restoration and promotion, Ecology of polluted areas, bioindicators and monitoring systems).


Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 4
To reinforce the capacity of institutions in each Contracting Party to achieve conservation and wise use of wetlands.

4.1 Describe the mechanisms in place, or being introduced, to increase cooperation between the various institutions responsible for actions which can have an impact on the conservation and wise use of wetlands. If one of the mechanisms is a National Ramsar/Wetlands Committee, please describe its composition, functions and modus operandi.

Federal level:

Such a mechanism has formally been instituted through the establishment of the Yugoslav Ramsar Committee, but it is still not fully developed.

Yugoslav Ramsar Committee:

Members are named by Federal Minister for Development, Science and Environment, after proposals made by Republic Ministries, and among the members of independent institutions and experts, as well as Federal ministry officers. President is an independent institution officer.

Responsibilities: to collect the relevant information and to give advice to the Federal Ministry for Development, Science and Environment and its services

Tasks: to prepare and develop proposals for the documents of the Federal Ministry for Development, Science and Environment; to coordinate projects aiming to enhance the implementation of Ramsar Convention and COPs resolutions.

Decisions: by voting.

Federal unit level:

Regarding individual Ramsar sites in the Republic of Serbia, there are mechanisms in place aimed at ensuring enhanced cooperation and coordination among various institutions responsible for the activities concerning the conservation and wise use of wetlands. When a marshland or similar aquatic area receives a special status (as a natural park, nature reserve, area of special ecological value), the act assigning that status must contain provisions designating the institutions responsible for the protected area wardening and coordinating the activities of all the users of the given land and developing the services/personnel necessary for the wetland wardening and implementation of its management plans. Besides, all the relevant sector plans have to be harmonized with the management plan of a protected area (the protection and development program). This coordination and harmonization is checked when such plans are submitted for approval. It is also planned that the responsible institutions/administrations establish special consulting/coordination councils to assist the implementation of the protection and development program, but this has not happened yet (except in the "Zasavica" nature reserve, where the responsible administration formed the Reserve Council and the administration responsible for the Luda{ Lake, who has formed the Reserve Foundation, but with negligible results).

Regarding the National Park of the Skadar Lake, the only Ramsar site in Montenegro, there are mechanisms in place aimed at ensuring enhanced cooperation and coordination among various institutions responsible for the activities concerning the conservation and wise use of wetlands. The Management Board has been established, appointed by the Government of the Republic of Montenegro, as well as the Scientific Council of the Public Enterprise for National Parks of Montenegro (encompassing the National Park of the Skadar Lake), including prominent experts and researchers from the relevant Montenegrin and Yugoslav institutions in the field of ecology, protection of nature and its areas of special value, and environmental protection in general. Majority of managerial decisions adopted on the level of the Public Enterprise are also considered by the Scientific Council; the Scientific Council may, for certain issues, form specialized commissions.

4.2 Of the following, indicate which have been undertaken:

a. a review to identify the training needs of institutions and individuals concerned with the conservation and wise use of wetlands Yes/No? If yes, please indicate the major findings of the review.

No

b. a review to identify training opportunities for these people both within your country and in other countries. Yes/No?

No

c. the development of training modules or a training programme specifically for wetland managers. If yes, please give details.

d. people from your country have gained wetland-related training either within or outside the country. Yes/No? If yes, please give details.

President of National Ramsar Bureau, as a student, has spent three weeks training in Wildfowl Trust, Slimbridge


Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 5
To ensure the conservation of all sites included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar List).

5.1 Of the Ramsar sites in your country, how many have formal management plans:

a. being prepared?

Regarding NP the Skadar Lake, a formal Management Plan was developed and adopted in 1988 (called the "Program of protection, promotion and use of natural resources of the NP Skadarsko Jezero", since it was developed during the old "socialist self-management" system, when the NP was managed by the "NP Skadar Lake Self-Management Community of Interest"). It is expected that the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro will soon adopt the Special-Status Areas Regional Plan for the NP SkadarLake (the public debate on the Draft Plan has already been completed), to serve as the basis for the new Protection and Development Program (Management Plan), pursuant to the Law on National Parks (1991).

b. fully prepared?
c. being implemented?

1. Rezervat "Luda{ko Jezero" za period 1996-2000

2. Rezervat "Stari Begej-Carska Bara" za period 1996-2000

3. Rezervat "Obedska Bara" za period 1996-2000

Please indicate in the attached table of Ramsar sites which sites these are and what category they fall into.

5.2 Of the management plans referred to above, which ones have included a monitoring scheme or programme to allow changes in ecological character to be detected? Please indicate this in the attached table of Ramsar sites also.

Federal units level: Yes

Protection and development programs envisage the establishment of appropriate monitoring (monitoring the status of ecosystems, preparation of flora and fauna inventories, water quality control, identification of threats, etc.)

The Program of Protection and Natural-Resources Use of the NP "Skadarsko Jezero" (1988) (Management Plan) envisages the following Program implementation measures concerning the monitoring establishment:

  • water quality and water pollution measurement, aerial pollution measurement, flora and fauna study, water status monitoring (water level, temperature, etc.) … (item 14.5)
  • establishment of a network of stations for water pollution and air pollution measurement, and water status monitoring, with special data processing and information system … (item 14.6)

The monitoring of water pollution and hydrological conditions of the Skadar Lake, as well as the air pollution measurement and climate characteristics monitoring of the mentioned area is realized, through special programs, by the Republican Hydro-meteorological Institute of Montenegro. In the period 1992-1997 the research focused on the surface and ground waters of the Zeta river valley, adjacent to the Skadar Lake catchment area. In addition to the existing monitoring programs, the preparation of a Program of Montenegro Biodiversity Monitoring, including the Skadar Lake and other prospective Ramsar sites in Montenegro, is underway.

5.3 Has there been a change in the ecological character (either positive or negative) at any of your Ramsar sites or is this likely to occur in the near future? Yes/No. If Yes, please give details.

In all the Ramsar sites in Serbia and Montenegro, as well as in most other wetlands within the territory of FRY, there is a general negative trend of gradual eutrophication, with remarkably disturbed water regime.

Obedska Bara:

A program of the "Rehabilitation of the east branch of Obedska Bara oxbow" started in 1997, aiming to clear up depressions and to remove logs and bushes. In the course of actions of international camp, in 1997, about 50 tons of wood material was removed, together with plastic waste, clearing up about 10 ha of the area. The main goal of the program is to increase the area of wet meadows and open water, which almost disappeared from the Reserve caused by the disruption of water regime and poplar plantation.

Two earth dams were constructed on Vok Channel in 1995/96, in order to improve water regime in the Reserve, increasing the water level for 0.5 m during dry period, compared to 1992-1994.

The dam near Ma~vanska Mitrovica raised the water retention level from 200 cm to 320 cm in the summer period, improving the water regime in the Reserve and ecological conditions in aquatic habitats.

The Skadar Lake

A gradual eutrophication process is noted in the Skadar Lake, in the northern inundation zone.

5.4 In the case of Montreux Record Ramsar sites where the Management Guidance Procedure has been applied, what is the status of the implementation of the MGP report recommendations? What is the expected time-frame for removing the site from the Montreux Record?

5.5 For those countries referred to in COP6 Recommendations 6.17.1-4, "Ramsar sites in the Territories of Specific Contracting Parties", please provide advice on the actions that have been taken in response to the issues raised at that time.


Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 6
To designate for the Ramsar List those wetlands which meet the Convention’s criteria, especially wetland types still under-represented in the List and transfrontier wetlands.

6.1 Has a national inventory of wetlands been prepared for your country? Yes/No.

If no, are there plans for this to be done? Yes/No.

Yes.  The first Program task set by the National Ramsar Committee is the preparation of an INVENTORY OF RAMSAR SITES:

  • Objective: Identifying the wetlands fulfilling the Ramsar requirements, as well as the wetlands of national importance.
  • Task: Preparing a preliminary inventory of wetlands within the territory of FR Yugoslavia.

Realization:

  • Project will be coordinated by the Council for Monitoring the Implementation of the Ramsar Convention in FR Yugoslavia (hereinafter referred to as "the Council").
  • Subjects responsible for realization: competent institutions and experts
  • Deadline for Inventory preparation: 24 months

Where a national inventory exists please provide details of when it was finalised, where it is kept and what information it contains.

6.2 Does there exist a list or directory of "important" wetlands for your country or region? Yes/No. If yes, please provide details of when it was finalised, where it is kept, what criteria for "important" were used, and the types of information it contains. 

Yes.  The new Ramsar sites have been designated pursuant to the COP6 Resolutions. The Skadar Lake was designated according to the criteria set in a, b, c, while Carska Bara-Stari Begej was designated pursuant to the criteria set in a and b

There is a preliminary list of the Ramsar sites within the territory of FR Yugoslavia, submitted in 1993 in Budapest. It is stored in the files of the National Ramsar Committee, and it has also been submitted to the Ramsar Bureau. The criteria were taken from the Convention itself, plus additional criteria (plants, fishes).

6.3 If it is known, please provide an estimate of the area of wetlands in your country at present and any information on rates of loss or conversion to other activities.

(From YU DOBRI[ Report 1998)

Estimated total surface area covered by wetlands in Yugoslavia

Area (ha) Year Sources
677,200 1998 Calculation; National Ramsar Committee documentation.

2a. Percentage of total surface area of wetlands included in protected sites in Yugoslavia

  Wetlands % of total area Year Sources
2.a.1 Protected at National level 11.261 1998 Documentation of Institutes for Nature protection of Serbia and Montenegro.
2.a.2 Protected at National level and Designated at international level 11.257 1998 IBA 1990; National Ramsar Committee documentation; Documentation of Institutes for Nature Protection of Serbia and Montenegro.
2.a.3 Only Designated at international level 2.809 1990 IBA 1990.

If this information is available, please indicate what definition of "wetland" was used.

The definition of "wetland" is taken from the Convention, i.e.: "areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters".

6.4 Have any actions been taken in response to the COP6 Resolutions and Recommendations that Contracting Parties should give priority to listing Wetlands of International Importance which:

a. meet the criteria for fish habitat (Resolution VI.2),
b. meet the 1% criterion for waterbird populations using data provided by the International Waterfowl Census (Resolution VI.4),
c. are subterranean karst or cave wetland systems (Resolution VI.5),
d. are peatland ecosystems (Recommendation 6.1)
e. are coral reefs and associated systems (Recommendation 6.7)
f. are under-represented wetland types (which apart from d. and e. above include mangroves and sea grass beds) (Strategic Plan Action 6.2.3)

The new Ramsar sites have been designated according to COP6 resolutions. Skadar Lake matches criteria a, b, and c, and Stari Begej-Carska Bara matches criteria a and b.

6.5 If your government indicated at COP6 that it would be proceeding to list further specific sites, please advise of the status of this action.

6.6 Please advise which of the sites included in the Ramsar List from your country are transfrontier wetlands (Refer also to 7.1).

The Skadar Lake is a transfrontier wetland shared by Yugoslavia (2/3) and Albania (1/3). The Yugoslav part of the lake is protected as a national park (II category of management according to the IUCN categorization) and, of course, as a Ramsar site, while the Albanian part of the lake has no special status whatsoever.

6.7 Describe any plans, or actions being taken for further transfrontier sites to be listed (Refer also to 7.1).


Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 7
To mobilise international cooperation and financial assistance for wetland conservation and wise use in collaboration with other conventions and agencies, both governmental and non-governmental.

7.1 Briefly describe any bilateral or multilateral activities that have been taken, are under way, or are planned for the management of transfrontier wetlands or their watersheds/catchments (Refer also to 6.6 and 6.7).

On several occasions, the Government of Montenegro tried to start a joint action with the Albanian side aimed at the Skadar Lake protection. These efforts resulted in the removal of expired pesticides situated in the town of Bajza at the northeast bank of the Skadar Lake. The proposals for assigning the status of a protected area to the Albanian part of the lake and launching joint projects for this area were not realized, although they were mutually accepted at the meetings of the two sides.

7.2 Do you have Ramsar sites that are "twinned" with others, either nationally or internationally? Yes/No. If yes, please give details.

7.3 Where your country is also a signatory of any of the following Conventions, describe what mechanism(s) exist to assist regular dialogue and cooperative actions between the personnel responsible for their implementation and the Ramsar Administrative Authority:

a. Convention on Biological Diversity
b. Framework Convention on Climate Change
c. Convention to Combat Desertification
d. Convention on Migratory Species
e. World Heritage Convention

The Yugoslav UNESCO Commission has been established as a counseling body of the Federal Government. The Committee deals with technical issues concerning the implementation of the obligations arising from the Ramsar Convention, some of which are concerned with the protection or use of aquatic ecosystems.

7.4 Is your country cooperating as part of any bilateral or multilateral activities directed at the conservation of migratory wetland species? Yes/No. If yes, please provide details.

Yes.  In the framework of international IBA Project in Europe (1995-1998) (BirdLife International) the coordination in Serbia was entrusted to the Institute for Protection of Nature of Serbia. IBA criterion were found matching in 36 areas, covering 775,560 hectometers (8.8% of the total territory of Serbia). Among them there is a number of wetlands entering the scope of implementation of Ramsar Convention in Yugoslavia.

Center for Animal Marking, Natural History Museum, Beograd, is entrusted of the official EURING National Scheme for FR Yugoslavia.

Natural History Museum, Beograd, is the IWC and TWGS national coordinator for FR Yugoslavia.

7.5 Are there multilateral and/or bilateral donors supporting projects which contribute to implementation of the Ramsar Convention in your country? Yes/No. If yes, please provide details.

7.6 Does your government make an annual budgetary allocation to support the conservation and wise use of wetlands within your country? Yes/No. If yes, is this a specific allocation to a wetlands programme or as part of a larger environment or natural resource management budget?

No.

7.7 If your country has a development assistance programme, does it include funds earmarked for wetland conservation and wise use in other countries? Yes/No. If yes, please give details.

No.

7.8 Is there a formal process in place for consultation between the Ramsar Administrative Authority and the development assistance programme in your country, where one exists? Yes/No. If yes, what is that process.

No.


Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 8
To provide the Convention with the required institutional mechanisms and resources.

8.1 Has your government made voluntary financial contributions, other than the invoiced contributions or to the Small Grants Fund, to further the work of the Convention globally? Yes/No. If yes, please provide details.

No.

8.2 If your country is in arrears with the payment of its annual contributions to the Ramsar Convention, please indicate the reasons for this situation and the prospects for paying these arrears in the near future.


Optional section - Participation of non-government organizations in the implementation of the Convention

These are optional questions relating to cooperation with and involvement of non-government organizations in the implementation of the Convention.

At COP6 some 42 NGOs made the "Brisbane NGO pledge of support for the Ramsar Convention". The Standing Committee agreed that for COP7 there should be an effort made to gauge the level and type of cooperation which is occurring between government Administrative Authorities and the national and international NGOs with an interest in wetlands issues.

In this optional section of the National Report, you are asked to describe the nature of the cooperation and relationship with any other international, regional, national and provincial NGOs operating within your country.

9.1 Approximately how many NGOs have wetlands as part of their regular "business" in your country?

Approximately 7- 8.

Please break this down between international, regional and national/provincial organizations.

National level/Province level:

  • Young Researchers of Serbia, with numerous branches, is the most important NGO in Serbia, actively engaged in research and work programs in the framework of Ramsar sites and other wetlands. "The Return of Ibis" is a research camp on Obedska Bara, established in 1992, which resulted in publication "The Return to Obedska Bara". An international camp on Obedska Bara was established in 1997, where YRS organize the camp and provide volunteers from abroad.
  • "Ecolibri-Bionet", Beograd, has various wetland diversity programmes. In 1998/99 a water bird count programme at Danube called "Avis Marsilliana" is granted by REC funds for Danube actions.
  • Society for the study and conservation of animals "Mustella", Beograd, has various programmes concerning wetland animals. In 1998/99 a bird ringing programme called "Dunav-Tica-Dunav (Danube-Birdy-Danube)" is granted by REC funds for Danube actions.
  • Society of young ecologists of Montenegro, Podgorica, - Ecological association "Mediterranean International, Podgorica,
  • Society for bird watching and conservation of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, is dealing in major part with wetland birds and their habitats. Its members regularly survey most important wetlands in Vojvodina. The reports of the Society are annually published in "Ciconia". A programme of heroneries inventory in 1998. is granted by REC.
  • Raptor conservation fund, Beograd/Nova Varo{, is officially entrusted to run management of wetland protected area of artificial lake "Uvac Canyon", where most important Yugoslav Griffon Vulture colony breeds. The conservation management programme covers the whole lake ecosystem.
  • Ecological Society "Rihard ^ornai" organizes a research camp on Luda{ Lake (since 1985, onwards), working on the research and education, and popularization of this protected site.
  • Pokret Gorana (Youth Movement For Reforestation) of Sremska Mitrovica is officially entrusted to run management of wetland protected area "Zasavica".

9.2 Is there a regular forum or mechanism through which these NGOs express their views on wetland conservation and Ramsar implementation:

a. to each other? Yes/No

No

b. to the government? Yes/No

No

9.3 Does your government include one or more NGO representatives on its official delegation to Ramsar COPs? Yes/No

No.  Remark: one among the Yugoslav delegates in MedCom (MedWet Committee) is a representative of the NGO, Young Researchers of Serbia, which is a non-government youth organization.

9.4 Do any of the NGOs run programmes aimed at Education and Public Awareness about wetlands in your country? Yes/No. If yes, please give details (Refer also to question 3.1).

No.

9.5 Where they exist, do Ramsar site management advisory committees include NGO representatives? If yes, please give details

9.6 Describe the themes of the Convention (refer to General Objectives 1-8 of the Strategic Plan) where you perceive the national/provincial NGOs to be most active.

Regarding the General Objective 5 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan, the national NGOs can best contribute by:

  • participating in the management of the Ramsar sites conservation (launching of campaigns and participation in the planning of actions aimed at the protection of such sites, cooperation with local population and users of the resources in the development and implementation of action plans and management plans…)
  • adaptation of traditional ways of resources utilisation, that indigenous people is accustomed to, towards the concept of wise use of wetlands..

Final comments:

10.1 General comments on implementation of the Ramsar Strategic Plan.

10.2 Observations concerning the functioning of, relations with, and services provided by:

a. The Ramsar Standing Committee
b. The Ramsar Scientific and Technical Review Panel
c. The Ramsar Bureau
d. The Ramsar NGO partners

10.3 Any other general observations and/or recommendations for the future.


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Annex: Country table for the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

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