The Annotated Ramsar List: Denmark

05/08/2013

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The Annotated Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance

DENMARK / DANEMARK / DINAMARCA

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The Convention on Wetlands came into force for Denmark on 2 January 1978. Denmark presently has 43 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance, with a surface area of 2,315,638 hectares.

site; date of designation; region, province, state; surface area; coordinates
site; date de désignation; région, province, état; superficie; coordonnées
sitios; fecha de designación; región, provincia, estado; área; coordenadas

Ertholmene. 02/09/77; Bornholm Municipality; 1,266 ha; 55°19'N 015°11'E. Natura 2000 SPA, SCA; Nature Conservation Area, Strict Nature Reserve. A group of rocky islands with sparse vegetation, two of which are inhabited. The area is important for several species of breeding waterbirds and the only breeding locality in Denmark for Common Guillemot Uria aalge and Razorbill Alca torda. The islands are of great cultural, historical, and architectural value. A bird observatory is located at the site. The main island is intensively visited by tourists (about 80,000 per year) but there is no public access to the wetland parts. Ramsar site no. 165. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Filsø. 02/09/77; Ribe; 4,270 ha; 55º42'N 008º15'E. ; Special Protection Area EC Directive; Nature Conservation Area. Formerly a large, shallow lake drained for agricultural land and pasture. About 1,200ha are intensively farmed and protected from flooding by dikes and water pumping. Two lakes surrounded by Salix scrub and reedbeds remain. The site is internationally important for wintering and staging waterbirds, including (in 2002) Cygnus cygnus (500), C. columbianus bewickii (300), Anser brachyrhynchus (25,000) and A. anser (20,000), and Anas acuta (1,500). The area is important botanically. Nutrient-enrichment from agricultural runoff is problematic, but in 2002 the amount is decreasing due to the Action Plan for the Aquatic Environment. Human activities include hunting. Private access is limited. Ramsar site no. 140. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Hirsholmene. 02/09/77; Region Nordjylland; 3,714 ha; 57°28'50"N 010°34'25"E. Scientific Sanctuary, Natura 2000 (SAC, SPA); Nature Conservation Area, Wildlife Reserve. Following a boundary extension in 2011, the site covers not only the group of small, rocky, coastal islands and shallow waters but also the surrounding sea territory. Only the main island, Hirsholm, is inhabited. The submerged limestone formations support rich communities of algae and littoral lichens; the habitat of stony islets with northern Atlantic seabird colonies is very rare in Denmark, and the "bubbling reefs" are unique in the country. The site is internationally important for numerous species of wintering and staging waterbirds. It is also one of the most important breeding areas in Denmark for the gulls Larus ridibundus and Larus canus, the Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis, Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle, and Rock Pipit Anthus spinoletta. The site is important for marine biology research. Rats, which destroyed the breeding colony of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) in 1968, have been exterminated, and sheep have been introduced to keep the vegetation low. Ramsar site no. 147. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Horsens Fjord and Endelave. 02/09/77; Region Midtjylland; 42,737 ha; 55°51'N 010°10'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC), Nature Conservation Area, Wildlife Reserve. A shallow fjord, adjacent sea area with reefs, sand banks, saltmarshes, islets and lagoons including partly cultivated islands with scattered habitation. The site is the most important area in the vicinity for the seal Phoca vitulina, and it is internationally important for breeding, moulting, wintering and staging various species of waterbirds. Human activities include fish-farming, camping and rabbit hunting. An invasive plant (Spartina alterniflora) is colonizing the island of Endelave. Changes in the land use are triggering vegetation succession in the marshes, negatively affecting birds' nesting and feeding activities. There is a field laboratory for monitoring and research. Ramsar site no. 152. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Karrebaek, Dybsø & Avnø Fjords. 02/09/77; Storstrøm; 18,860 ha; 55º10’N 011º45’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive, Nature Conservation Areas, Wildlife Reserve. A shallow coastal area of open water with reefs, sand-banks, lagoons, saltmarshes, islands, reedbeds, cultivated land, woodland, and scattered habitation. The site is internationally important for wintering and staging waterbirds such as cormorants, swans and ducks and is an important breeding area for dabbling ducks. The fjords support a diverse marine fauna, algal flora, and are breeding and haul-out areas for seals. Parts of the common land and saltmarshes were becoming overgrown due to reduced grazing, but an RIS update of 2002 notes "in cooperation with private owners the Storstrøm County has re-established the former management, especially extensive grazing of the saltmarshes". Hunting birds from motor boats is prohibited and leisure activities are popular. Ramsar site no. 159. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Læsø. 02/09/77; Region Nordjylland; 66,548 ha; 57°12'N 011°10'E. Natura 2000 (SAC,SPA); Nature Conservation Areas, Scientific Reserve. The largest Danish tidal saltmarsh outside the Wadden Sea, with an outstanding botanical interest. The site, which includes open water, extensive mudflats, sand banks, heathland, islets, and areas of arable land, is an internationally important area for wintering, molting and staging waterbirds. Breeding mammals include seals (Phoca vitulina). The decline in grazing has led to vegetational succession in the saltmarsh. Invasive species are colonizing the site, especially Japanese Rose (Rosa rugosa). Scrub clearance has been implemented to re-establish open heathland and pastures. Human activities include recreation, horseback riding, horse wagon, guided tours and birdwatching. Ramsar site no. 149. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Lille Vildmose. 18/05/2013; Region Nordjylland; 7,393 ha; 56°54’N 010°12’E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC), Habitat/Species Management Area. The site comprises a blend of bogs, forests, lakes and meadows and holds an important flora and fauna characteristic of large bogs, including important species such as Sphagnum mosses. A large part of the raised bog has been drained, cultivated and used for a turf industry. Peat extraction ceased in 2011, however, and restoration plans supported by the EU LIFE+ funds have been implemented. The restored lakes contain high levels of phosphorus but they are rich in European-protected bird species such as Common Crane, Curlew, Golden Eagle, White-tailed Eagle, Eagle Owl, Avocet and Wood Sandpiper. Moreover, populations of Red Deer, Otter, Badger and Wild Boar also breed within the site. Lille Vildmose is also very important for carbon storage, groundwater recharge and climate regulation. One of the primary threats derives from fragmentation of the bog habitat due to former excavation and drainage causing vegetation overgrowth. Today the main use of the area is for nature conservation. There are many visitor facilities such as a visitor centre, exhibitions, information activities and guided tours, boardwalks and several towers for birdwatching. Ramsar Site no. 2166. Most recent RIS information: 2013.

Lillebælt. 02/09/77; Region Syddanmark; 35,189 ha; 55°21'N 009°43'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC), Wildlife Reserves, Nature Conservation Area. A narrow strait of shallow, coastal water, islands, peninsulas, coves, lagoons, saltmarshes, reedbeds and farmland. The site is an internationally important area for breeding, wintering and staging waterbirds, including cormorants, ducks, and geese. Human activities include hunting and commercial fish-farming. As of 2002, intervention and sanctions by environmental authorities have diminished industrial pollution (CaSO4) and discharge of oxygen-consuming materials, but pollution, eutrophication, and hunting are still perceived as potential threats. Management plans have been developed in 2011 prioritizing specific goals to improve the water quality and the ecological status of the wetland and its catchment and coastal areas. Ramsar site no. 154. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Maribo Lakes. 02/09/77; Region Sjælland; 3,823 ha; 54°45'N 011°33'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC); Nature Conservation Area. Freshwater lakes supporting wooded islands and peninsulas, reedbeds, adjoining meadows with scattered shoreline habitation. There are several calcareous fens with orchid populations along the shores of the lakes. An internationally important area for wintering and staging geese and sea ducks and a nesting site for various waterbirds, supporting more than 1% of the individuals (2002-2009) of Greylag Goose, Shoveler, Pochard, Tufted Duck and Smew. The main factors threatening the site's ecological character are eutrophication from nutrients from adjacent farmland, afforestation, reedbed cutting, disturbance, and invasive alien species. Restoration of Hejrede Lake was initiated in 1993. A management plan has implemented hunting and sailing restrictions since 2000. Ramsar site no. 163. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Nærå Coast and Æbelø area. 02/09/77; Region Syddanmark; 13,161 ha; 55°36'N 010°13'E. Natura 2000 (SAC, SPA), Nature Conservation Areas, Wildlife Reserves. Shallow coastal waters with saltmarshes, farmland, forested areas, and islands of which Æbelø is the only inhabited one. The site is an internationally important area for wintering and staging waterbirds, including cormorants and geese, and includes Gyldensteen's meadows, one of the few staging areas in Denmark for the Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons. Several Stone Age settlements and burial mounds are found within the site. The major threats to the ecological character of the wetland are eutrophication of coastal waters with regular blooms of filamentous algae and Sea Lettuce Ulva lactuca and meadow succession, posing a threat to goose populations. A management plan was developed in 2011 setting up site-specific nature goals and priorities. Parallel to this initiative, River Basin Management Plans have also been developed in order to improve water quality and the ecological status of wetland catchments and coastal areas. Ramsar site no. 155. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Nakskov Fjord and Inner Fjord. 02/09/77; Region Sjælland; 8,561 ha; 54°50'N 011°02'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC), Wildlife Reserve. Shallow fjord area of open water with sand banks, inhabited and uninhabited islands, saltmarshes, reedbeds, freshwater ponds and sand beaches. Internationally important for wintering and staging various species of waterbirds, the site supports more than 1% of the biogeographical population of Mute Swan Cygnus olor and Greylag Goose Anser anser. The main factors adversely affecting the site's ecological character at the present are eutrophication of marine waters, especially in the Inner Fjord, and disturbances from recreational activities. A management plan is currently under development. Ramsar site no. 162. Most recent RIS information: 2013.

Nissum Bredning with Harboøre and Agger Tange. 02/09/77; Regions Midtjylland and Nordjylland; 12,786 ha; 056°38'N 008°15'E.Natura 2000 (SCA, SPA); Nature Conservation Areas, Wildlife Reserve. A shallow fjord area, open water, saltmarsh, sand flats, meadows, agricultural land, brackish lagoons and reedbeds, it is an internationally important area for breeding, wintering and staging various species of waterbirds such as Baltic Dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii) and Ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Moreover, the site supports more than 1% of the individuals of the goose species Anser brachyrhynchus, Anser anser, and Branta bernicla hrota. A breeding colony of the seal Phoca vitulina is also supported. Public access is regulated during breeding season of waterbirds. Declining grazing has resulted in marsh and meadow degradation, and invasive species such as mink and raccoon dog are new threats in Agger Tange. In 2011 management plans were issued by the Ministry of the Environment setting up specific nature goals and priorities. A monitoring programme (NOVANA) has been implemented since 2003 to assess water quality. Ramsar site no. 144. Most recent RIS information: 2012..

Nissum Fjord. 02/09/77; Region Midtjylland; 10,952 ha; 56°21'N08°14'E. Natura 2000 (SAC, SPA); Nature Conservation Area; Wildlife Reserve. A shallow, very eutropic, brackish fjord connected to the North Sea through a lock system. There are areas of saltmarshes, uninhabited islands supporting heathland vegetation, brackish meadows, and extensive reedbeds. The site is an internationally important area for breeding, wintering and staging of various species of endangered waterbirds such as Baltic Dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii and Ruff Philomachus pugnax. The site regularly supports over 20,000 staging waterbirds during spring and autumn. Human activities include reed harvesting and cattle grazing. Eutrophication and loss of underwater vegetation have reduced the numbers of birds of passage. Bird observation platforms and public foot and bicycle paths have been established. Guided tours are organized to raise public awareness about the value of the site for migratory birds. Ramsar Site no.143. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Nordre Rønner. 02/09/77; Region Nordjylland; 2,993 ha; 57°22'N 010°56'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC). Sea area with stony banks and inhabited islands which support a diverse algal flora and submarine landscapes of carbonate-cemented rocks (bubbling reefs). The site is important for wintering and staging various species of waterbirds. It is also a nationally important breeding area for the Artic Tern (Sterna paradisea), and the Pipit Anthus spinoletta has its second largest breeding concentration in Denmark within the site. Breeding mammals include seal Phoca vitulina. Human activities include boat trips, seal watching tours, and local eel fishery. The island is gradually overgrown with bushes and grasses which are changing the conditions for breeding birds. Potential threats are illegal landings and disturbance of breeding waterbirds and seals, and the anchoring of boats and eutrophication are causing negative impacts on the reefs. Ramsar site no. 148. Most recent RIS information: 2012..

Præstø Fjord, Jungshoved Nor, Ulvshale and Nyord. 02/09/77; Region Sjælland; 24,778 ha; 55°05'N 012°15'E. Natura 2000 (SAC, SPA); Nature Conservation Areas, Scientific Sanctuary, Experimental Wildlife Reserve. Shallow, coastal waters with reefs, mudflats, sand banks, islets, reedbeds, and the largest continuous area of saltmarsh in southeastern Denmark. Terrestrial areas include deciduous woodland, heathland, cultivated land and scattered human habitation. Internationally important for wintering and staging of numerous species of waterbirds, the site supports more than 1% of at least five species of swans, geese, wigeons, and coots. Declining grazing and haymaking have resulted in areas of marsh becoming overgrown. Present threats adversely affecting the site's ecological character are eutrophication, predation, human disturbance, and drains and ditches in saltmarshes. A visitors' centre and observation towers have been in operation since 2001. Management plans have been developed and implemented, and hunting from motor boats has been prohibited. Ramsar site no. 161. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Randers and Mariager Fjords and the adjacent sea. 02/09/77; Regions Midtjylland & Nordjylland; 39,190 ha; 56°42'N 010°13'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC), Nature Conservation Area, Wildlife Reserve. A shallow fjord, small islets, saltmarshes, mudflats and cultivated land, providing an internationally important site for breeding, wintering and staging various species of waterbirds. 38.6% of the Svalbard population of the goose Branta bernicla hrota (2,700 between 2004-2009) gather in winter. Human activities include fishing, hunting and sailing. At present the main factors affecting the site's ecological character are eutrophication of fjords and the open marine areas, overgrowing of saltmarshes with Cordgrass (Spartina sp) and other high vegetation, drainage and construction of sea dikes. Ramsar site no. 150. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Ringkøbing Fjord. 02/09/77; Region Midtjylland; 27,652 ha; 56°00'N 008°15'E. Added to the Montreux Record, 4 July 1990. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC); Nature Conservation Area, Scientific Reserves. A big shallow, brackish inlet, surrounded by extensive areas of salt meadows. Water flow from fjord to sea is artificially controlled. The site is an internationally important area for breeding, wintering and staging numerous species of waterbirds. During the 1970s and 1980s serious problems of sedimentation and nutrient-enrichment caused by regulation of the River Skjern and runoff of agricultural nutrients triggered changes in ecological character which led to the registration of the site on the Montreux Record in 1990. Human activities include commercial fishing, reed harvesting, sheep grazing, hunting, and extensive farming. A Ramsar Advisory Mission visited the site in 1996, and since then management plans have been implemented. There are signs of generally improved water quality, return of submerged vegetation, and higher bird numbers in recent years. However, the total nitrogen load doesn't yet show a significant statistical decrease. Ramsar site no. 141. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Sejrø Bugt, Nekselø Bugt and Saltbæk Vig. 02/09/77; Region Sjælland; 44,111 ha; 55°47'N 011°18'E; Natura 2000 (SAC, SPA), Nature Conservation Area. Shallow coastal waters with cultivated islands, clay cliffs and sand and gravel bars, heathland, reedbeds, meadows, saltmarshes, and an artificially regulated lake. The site forms the most important Danish moulting area for the goose Anser anser and is internationally important for wintering and staging geese and sea ducks, with more than 1% of the biogeographic population of Eider Somateria mollissima and Common Scooter Melanitta nigra. Two invasive plant species, Rosa rogusa and Heracleum pubescens, are spreading along the coastline. Human activities include hunting, mineral extraction, and conversion of meadows for cultivation. Public access is limited. Present factors adversely affecting the site's ecological character are changes in the land use. Management plans have been developed for the site and the river basin, and a monitoring programme for water and nature (NOVANA) has been carried out since 2003. Ramsar site no. 157. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

South Funen Archipelago. 02/09/77; Region Syddanmark; 38,329 ha; 54°55'N 10°32'E. Natura 2000 (SPA,SAC) Nature Conservation Areas, Wildlife Reserves. Shallow coastal waters, uninhabited islands, saltmarshes and reedbeds. The site is an internationally important area for wintering, staging, moulting and breeding of a large number of waterbirds, among them, Bittern Botaurus stellaris, Baltic Dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii, and Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta. The archipelago regularly supports more than 1% of the individuals of the population of Mute Swan Cygnus olor and Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus. Land use within the site is dedicated to farming, grazing and forestry. The major threats affecting the site's ecological character are human disturbance, tourist pressure, eutrophication, drainage for agriculture, and habitat loss. A management plan was issued by the Danish Ministry of the Environment in 2011 and has been implemented. Ramsar site no. 156. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Stadil and Vest Stadil Fjords. 02/09/77; Region Midtjylland; 6,932 ha; 56°11'N 008°09'E. Natura 2000 (SAC, SPA); Nature Conservation Area. Two shallow fjords with four lakes surrounded by extensive reed swamp, meadows, fields and dunes, with adjacent agricultural land. The site is an internationally important area for breeding, wintering and staging of a diverse number of threatened waterbirds as Eurasian or Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris, Spotted Crake Porzana porzana, Black Tern Chidonias niger, and Ruff Philomachus pugnax. The site includes greater than 1% populations of at least five species, among them Cygnus columbianus bewickii and Anser brachyrhynchus. Human activities include tourism, hunting and reed harvesting. The site is a popular area for birdwatching, and guided tours are frequently organized to raise public awareness about the value of the site. Ramsar site no. 142. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Stavns Fjord and adjacent waters. 02/09/77; Region Midtjylland; 15,533 ha; 55°54'N 010°40'E. Natura 2000 (SAC, SPA), Nature Conservation Area, Nature Reserve, Wildlife Reserve. Shallow sea and fjord areas of reefs, sand banks, islands, and saltmarshes, with farmland on inhabited islands. A rich marine flora and fauna are supported and parts of the site are used for commercial fish-farming. The site is internationally important for various species of breeding, moulting, staging and wintering waterbirds, and includes haul-out areas for the seal Phoca vitulina. Human activities include diving, windsurfing, hunting and exploitation of raw materials, but public access is prohibited during the breeding season. There has been mineral extraction from the sea bed. Archaeological, geological, and ecological research is carried out within the site. In 2011 management plans settled site-specific nature goals and priorities to improve water quality and the ecological character of the wetland and its catchment and coastal area. Ramsar site no. 153. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning. 02/09/77; Region Nordjylland; 18,575 ha; 57°02'N 009°35'E. NATURA 2000 (SAC,SPA) ; Nature Conservation Area, Wildlife Reserves. A shallow fjord surrounded by marshes and reedbeds, including open water, islets, mudflats, saltmarsh, small lakes and agricultural land. It is internationally important for wintering and staging various species of waterbirds and supports more than 1% of the biogeographic populations of Whooper and Bewick's Swans and Light-bellied Brent Goose (Branta bernicla hrota). Nutrient loading and resulting eutrophication of the aquatic environment have caused a major collapse and 90% reduction of the surface area of the submerged Zostera marina beds in Nibe and Gjol Bredninger, and this has been followed by notable reductions in numbers of Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope), and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra). Management plans have been issued in 2011 by the Danish Ministry of the Environment setting up site-specific nature goal and priorities to improve water quality and the ecological status of wetland catchments and coastal areas. Ramsar site no. 146. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Vadehavet (Wadden Sea). 14/05/87; Region Syddanmark; 151,080 ha; 55°16'N 08°32'E. Natura 2000 SPA; Nature Conservation Areas, Scientific Reserve, Wildlife Reserve. The Danish Wadden Sea area is characterized by tidal mud and sandflats, saltmarshes, brackish and freshwater marshland and arable land. The entire Wadden Sea is one of the world's most productive wetlands with an outstanding rich bottom fauna including vast mussel beds. The area is an important nursing habitat for several fish species of the North Sea as well as for internationally important numbers of seals and waterbirds, of which various species use the site for breeding, wintering and staging, notably Ciconia ciconia, Calidris alpine schinzii and Philomachus pugnax. Ramsar Site Number: 356. Most Recent RIS Information: 2012.

Vejlerne and Løgstør Bredning. 02/09/77; Region Nordjylland; 43,534 ha; 056°56'N 009°03'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC), Nature Conservation Area, Wildlife Reserves. A shallow, brackish fjord of open water, shoals, islands and saltmarshes internationally important for nesting, wintering and staging of numerous species of waterbirds. Abandonment and unsuccessful reclamation efforts led to the development of extensive reedbeds, lakes and meadows. The site is surrounded by rural landscape composed of privately owned forests and agricultural lands, causing eutrophication through cultivation of meadows in the adjacent area. A management plan for the site has been implemented since 2009. Bird watching tourism has increased since the creation of the new visitors centre and observation towers in 2001. Ramsar site no. 145. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Waters between Lolland and Falster, including Rødsand, Guldborg Sound, & Bøtø Nor. 02/09/77; Region Sjælland; 34,812 ha; 54°38'N 011°45'E. Natura 2000 SPA; Nature Conservation Areas, Wildlife Reserves. Shallow, coastal waters, shoals, sand banks, uninhabited islands, saltmarshes and reedbeds. The mainland terrestrial areas support farmland and woodland. The site is an internationally important area for breeding, wintering and staging numerous species of waterbirds, and a particularly important moulting area for Mute Swan (Cygnus olor). There are also breeding and haul-out areas for Common Seal Phoca vitulina and Grey Seal Halichoerus grypus. Hunting from motor boats is prohibited in selected areas. Two bird observation towers have been built in Bøtø Nor. Ramsar site no. 164. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Waters north of Anholt. 02/09/77; Region Midtjylland; 11,616 ha; 56°42'N 011°34'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC), Nature Conservation Area, Seal Reserve. Shallow waters with shoals and sandbanks, vast sandy beaches, reefs and open sea. The site is the only Danish breeding site for Halichoerus grypus and Phoca vitulina seals. Gravel extraction affected the site's ecological character until recent times. Public access is limited and hunting has been prohibited. Since 2003 a national monitoring programme (NOVANA) is assessing nature and water quality under the EEC Birds, Habitats and Water Framework Directives. Ramsar site no. 151. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Waters south of Zealand, Skælskør Fjord, Glænø and adjacent wetlands. 02/09/77; Region Sjælland; 18,577 ha; 55°11'N 011°18'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC), Nature Conservation Areas. A coastal area with open waters and reefs, coves, saltmarshes, reedbeds, lakes, islands, woodland and farmland. The whole site is internationally important for wintering, staging and moulting of numerous species of waterbirds as Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus and Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis. It also supports more than 1% of European population of Greylag Goose Anser anser, Shoveler Anas clypeata, and Coot Fulica atra. The main factors affecting the ecological character of the site are invasive plant species Rosa rugosa and Heracleum pubescens, which are spreading along the coastline, habitat loss, vegetation succession, water pollution and eutrophication caused by agricultural activities. Hunting has been regulated in order to reduce waterbird disturbance. Site specific management action plans are in preparation. Ramsar site no. 158. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Waters southeast of Fejø & Femø islands. 02/09/77; Region Sjælland; 41,826 ha; 54°54'N 011°30'E. Natura 2000 (SPA, SAC); Wildlife Reserves. A shallow coastal area of open water with reefs, sand banks, mudflats, uninhabited islets, saltmarshes, reedbeds, and islands supporting cultivated land and scattered habitation. Mainland coastal areas support deciduous woodland. The site is an internationally breeding, staging and wintering important area for of waterbirds, including Mute Swan (Cygnus olor), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Little Tern (Sterna albiforms). Human activities include recreation and agriculture. There is heavy hunting pressure in the open sea areas; strict regulations within the two wildlife reserves contribute to sustainable practices, however. The main factors affecting the site's ecological character are eutrophication of marine waters. A management plan was developed in 2011 which set site-specific nature goals and priorities. Parallel to this initiative, River Basin Management Plans have also been developed in order to improve water quality and the ecological status of wetland catchments and coastal areas. Ramsar site no. 160. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

DENMARK (Faroe Islands) / DANEMARK (Îles Féroé) / DINAMARCA (Islas Feroe)

Mykines. 31/05/12; Faroe Islands; 2,300 ha; 62°06'17"N 007°35'55"W. Important Bird Area. Grassy slopes, sea cliffs and the surrounding sea provide breeding and feeding habitat for an estimated 250,000 pairs of seabirds of 15 species, many of them of European importance. Half of the bird population is made up of the Faroe Island's largest colony of Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica) with 125,000 pairs. Common Guillemot, Black Guillemot, Black-legged Kittiwake and Northern Fulmar breed here as well as the only colony of Northern Gannet Morus bassanus and Leach's Storm-petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa in the Faroe Islands. The skerries around the rocky marine shores provide habitat for colonies of European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis, but also for Grey Seals Halichoerus grypus. The site is used for hay making, agriculture, sheep pastures and fishing. The island is also one of the most popular tourist destinations in the Faroes, offering guided tours and overnight stays. Traditional seabird hunting is practiced, as is the collection of young Gannets once a year. Threats to the site and its bird population include climate-related ecological changes which may already have disrupted the food web of marine birds in the North Atlantic and reduced breeding success in the site. Further threats include the possible introduction of rats to the island and possible tourism-related disturbances. Ramsar Site no. 2051. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Nolsoy (Nólsoy). 31/05/12; Faroe Islands; 2,197 ha; 62º00'33"N 006º40'07"W. Important Bird Area. Grassy and stony slopes as well as the surrounding sea area provide breeding and feeding habitat for one of the world's largest concentrations of European Storm-petrel Hydrobates pelagicus, with 50,000 pairs. The extensive sea cliffs also host important breeding populations of Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica, with 30,000 pairs, Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis and Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle. The Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea also breeds here. The breeding success of several seabird species is highly variable and declines in bird numbers have been observed recently. Human uses include agriculture, sheep pastures, ornithological research and fishing. Traditional hunting of Northern Fulmar and Atlantic Puffin is still practiced in the site. The island is easily reachable by ferry and guided tourist tours are offered. Potential factors of threat include the possible introduction of rats to the island; bird hunting, tourism-related disturbance of bird colonies as well as climate related ecological changes. The non-native European frog Rana temporaria has recently been introduced to the island. Ramsar Site no. 2052. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Skuvoy (Skúvoy and Skúgvoy). 31/05/12; Faroe Islands; 1,790 ha; 61º46'11"N 006º49'46"W. Important Bird Area. Grassy slopes and sea cliffs provide breeding habitat for large concentrations of up to 280,000 pairs of seabirds. The site hosts the Faroe Islands' largest colony of Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus with an estimated 10,000 pairs and Common Guillemot Uria aalge with 96,000 individuals. Moreover 12,000 pairs of Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, 50,000 pairs of Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, and 40,000 pairs of Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica can be found in the site. Bird species of European importance include the European Storm-petrel Hydrobates pelagicus and the Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria. Great Skua and Arctic Skua also feed along the coast. Human uses include hay making, agriculture, sheep pastures, fishing, research and tourism. Traditional seabird hunting and chick collection of Manx Shearwater is still practiced to some extent. Monitoring data indicate a decline in breeding success and bird numbers. Potential factors of threat include the possible introduction of rats to the island, tourism-related disturbance of bird colonies, as well as climate related ecological changes. Ramsar Site no. 2053. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

DENMARK (Greenland) / DANEMARK (Groenland) / DINAMARCA (Groenlandia)

Aqajarua (Mudderbugten) and Sullorsuaq (Kvandalen). 27/01/88; Qeqertarsuaq; 22,350 ha; 69º39’N 051º58’W. A shallow marine area and adjacent river valley forming an extensive coastal delta with vast mudflats, sand banks and saltmarsh, dominated by a large ice-cap. Vegetation varies from heathland and water tolerant plants to sparse alpine communities. An important area for several species of breeding and staging shorebirds and the most important site in the western Arctic for molting Somateria spectabilis (30,000). Local people harvest the area’s natural resources and hunting is regulated. Ramsar site no. 381. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Eqalummiut Nunaat and Nassuttuup Nunaa. 27/01/88; Kangaatsiaq, Sisimiut; 579,530 ha; 67º28’N 050º49’W. A diverse topography of plateau landscapes interspersed with lowland areas of extensive grass steppes, swamp, marshland, numerous lakes, and extensive tracts of dry, barren land at altitude. The site is divided by large glacial valleys, draining the Greenland ice-cap. One of the most important areas in Greenland for the threatened goose Anser albifrons flavirostris, with 3,000 individuals (ca.6% of the world population) gathering to molt. Numerous species of breeding and non-breeding birds use the site. Part of the site has been designated as a reserve for caribou that calve in the area. There are summer hunting and fishing camps. The musk ox (Ovibos moschatus), introduced to west Greenland, is slowly spreading into the site. Ramsar site no. 386. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Heden (Jameson Land). 27/01/88; Ittoqqortoormiit; 252,390 ha; 70º58’N 024º04’W. Part of the largest tundra area in Greenland, includes numerous shallow lakes, wet heathland, meadows, streams and rivers. It is an important staging area for geese and numerous species of breeding waterbirds, and the single most important moulting area for barnacle goose (Brantaleucopsis), with ca.7% of the flyway population. Seasonal harvesting of natural resources is carried out by local people and hunting is regulated. An oil exploration programme has been active since 1985. Ramsar site no. 389. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Hochstetter Forland. 27/01/88; 184,820 ha; 75º28’N 019º52’W. National Park. A low-lying wetland complex of numerous small lakes, surrounded by extensive areas of tundra. An important area for staging geese and for numerous species of breeding waterbirds, particularly Pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus). Some seasonal harvesting of natural resources is carried out by local people and hunting is regulated. Ramsar site no. 390. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Ikkattoq and adjacent archipelago. 27/01/88; Nuuk; 44,880 ha; 62º40’N 050º08’W. A shallow, tidal fjord, extensive mudflats and numerous small islands. The area is important for the globally threatened sea eagle, which breeds at the site, staging marine ducks, and Greenland’s largest known molting flock of Red-breasted merganser Mergus serrator (1,000 individuals in 1985, 474 in 1999). Ramsar site no. 387. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Kilen. 27/01/88; 51,280 ha; 81º10’N 013º24’W. National Park. A seasonally ice-free valley located in the high arctic, comprising large flat gravel plains surrounded by glaciers and sea-ice. The site is an important staging and breeding area for waterbirds and the most important molting area for Light-bellied brent goose (Branta bernicla hrota). Some seasonal natural resource harvesting is carried out by local people and hunting is regulated. Ramsar site no. 391. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Kitsissunnguit (Grønne Ejland). 27/01/88; Qasigiannquit, Aasiaa; 6,910 ha; 68º50'N 051º56'W. A group of flat, rocky islands, heathland, small lakes, meadows, and adjacent shallow sea areas. The area supports large numbers of staging waterbirds and several species of breeding birds. Public access and hunting are regulated; increased collection of eggs is seen as a potential threat. Ramsar site no. 384. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Kitsissut Avalliit (Ydre Kitsissut). 27/01/88; Qaqortoq; 4,470 ha; 60º45'N 048º25'W. A group of thinly vegetated rocky islands 10km off the southwestern coast, several of which are submerged during spring tides. The area is important for breeding various species of sea birds, including internationally important numbers of Brünnich's guillemots and common guillemots. Ramsar site no. 388. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Kuannersuit Kuussuat. 27/01/88; Qeqertarsuaq; 5,190 ha; 69º38'N 053º17'W. A broad valley subject to recent glacial influences, consisting of moraine debris and small pools. A braided river system flows through the site, draining adjoining glaciated mountains. Several hot springs are found within the site, and the glacier at the head of the valley, as of May 2002, had surged 10km in merely four years, now covering 14% of the Ramsar site. The area is important for several species of breeding waterbirds. Some harvesting of the area's natural resources is carried out by local people. Ramsar site no. 383. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Naternaq (Lersletten). 27/01/88; Qasigiannquit, Kangaatsiaq; 184,010 ha; 68º24'N 051º46'W. One of the most important wetland complexes in western Greenland, comprising an extensive marshy plain, numerous shallow lakes, and meandering streams. The site is of particular botanical significance, supporting diverse communities from dense moss mats to dwarf scrub heath. The area supports the highest densities of the summering goose Anser albifrons flavirostris (some 9-20% of world population, with 2588 birds in 1992 and about 6,000 in 1998) to be found in Greenland, as well as various species of breeding birds. There are no permanent human settlements, although there is some winter hunting and a summer camp on the site's periphery. As of 2002, the musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) has been introduced, because of the abundance of its winter food in lowland areas, and small numbers are frequently recorded within the site. Ramsar site no. 385. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

Ørsted Dal, Pingel Dal and Enhjørningen Dal. 08/06/11; Scoresbysund; 218,000 ha; 71°40'N 023°24'W. Three wide valleys with extensive freshwater wetlands, including large rivers and extensive marshes, in an otherwise alpine area (from sea level up to 1,300m) along the eastern coast of Greenland, some 110km north of the settlement of Ittoqqortoormiit (pop. 450). One of the valleys, Ørsted/Colorado Dal, has a number of lakes and ponds as well and becomes snowfree earlier than others in the region, thus providing breeding habitat for 18-20 species of shorebirds and waterbirds. The area is especially significant for its high numbers of Barnacle Geese Branta leucopsis and Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrynchus, but the higher ground is also an important site for the Muskox Ovibos moschatus. The Lemming Dicrostonyx collaris and Arctic Fox Alopex lagopus are commonly found, and the vulnerable mammals the Arctic Wolf Canis lupus and Polar Bear Ursus maritimus are present in smaller numbers. In addition, there are some 150 species of vascular plants and an endemic species, Saxifraga nathorstii, as well as an endemic variety of Potentilla stipularis var. groenlandica. In most of the site all activities related to mineral exploration are regulated, and designation as a national protected area, prohibiting mineral exploitation, is under consideration. Ramsar site no. 2021. Most recent RIS information: 2011.

Qínnquata Marraa and Kuussuaq. 27/01/88; Qeqertarsuaq; 6,480 ha; 69º56'N 054º14'W. Two broad valleys subject to active periglacial processes, the site includes extensive intertidal mudflats and the shallow head of a fjord. Valley bottoms contain braided melt-water rivers draining surrounding glaciated areas. Various wetland types from extensive moss-sedge meadows to marshes and pools provide feeding areas for waterbirds. The single most important molting area in Greenland for King eiders (Somateria spectabilis), the area is internationally important for breeding waterbirds, and low numbers of several species use the area for staging. Ramsar site no. 382. Most recent RIS information: 2002.

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