The Annotated Ramsar List: Canada

22/09/2012

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The Annotated Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance

CANADA

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The Convention on Wetlands came into force for Canada on 15 May 1981. Canada presently has 37 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance, with a surface area of 13,086,771 hectares.

National Wetland Policy of Canada (text)

site; date of designation; region, province, state; surface area; coordinates
site; date de désignation; région, province, état; superficie; coordonnées
sitios; fecha de designación; región, provincia, estado; área; coordenadas

Baie de l'Isle-Verte. 27/05/87; Québec; 2,215 ha; 48º01’N 069º20’W. National Wildlife Area. Some of the last-remaining, unreclaimed Spartina marsh along the St. Lawrence River. The site includes an intertidal zone, providing important breeding habitat for the duck Anas rubripes and serves as an important resting and feeding site for large numbers of migratory Anatidae(ducks, geese, swans, etc.), particularly in spring. There is a seasonal visitors’ center with trails and an interpretation programme. Ramsar site no. 362. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Beaverhill Lake. 27/05/87; Alberta; 18,050 ha; 53º30’N 113º30’W. A broad, shallow lake set in a rolling landscape containing many smaller water bodies, or "sloughs". The vegetation includes emergent shoreline communities, forest, natural and cultivated grassland. An important breeding and staging area for various migratory waterbirds. Nesting species include a variety of ducks, colonies of Pelecanus erythrorhynchus and Phalacrocorax auritus. Spectacular numbers of birds occur particularly during fall migration, when over 200,000 Anatidae(ducks, geese, swans, etc.) gather. Notable concentrations (for the prairie region) of migratory shorebirds also occur. Ramsar site no. 370. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Cap Tourmente. 15/01/81; Québec; 2,398 ha; 47º04’N 070º48’W. National Wildlife Area. The site incorporates a range of habitats, from a 600m summit to extensive intertidal flats and coastal marshes containing a significant proportion of the remaining Scirpus americanus marsh vegetation, vital for the goose Anser caerulescens atlanticus. This marsh vegetation is restricted to the freshwater, tidal parts of the St. Lawrence River. Thousands of ducks and nearly the entire world population of the goose stage here during fall migration to feed. The geese also pass through in spring. 700 plant species have been recorded (several rare), many reaching their northern limit of distribution. Approximately 75,000 people visit the area each year. Ramsar site no. 214. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Chignecto. 16/10/85; Nova Scotia; 1,020 ha; 45º48’N 064º16’W. National Wildlife Area; Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Half the site consists of Spartina-dominated saltmarsh dissected by numerous tidal creeks and channels. The freshwater wetlands range from sink-hole ponds, small lakes and bogs to reed marsh. An important staging area for geese (up to 6,000) and three species of ducks during spring migration. Recreation and urban expansion are main human activities. Ramsar site no. 320. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Columbia Wetlands. 05/06/05; British Columbia; 15,070 ha; 50°41'N 115°13'W. Wildlife Management Area. The largest of its kind in British Columbia, this wetland qualifies under all eight Criteria and comprises a regionally unparalleled diversity of 16 habitats and shelters around 216 species, of which the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and badger (Taxidea taxus) are endangered. A nesting and rearing habitat for over 180 species of birds, total counts in excess of 10,000 swans, geese and ducks have been recorded in spring, 15,000 ducks in autumn, and up to 1200 tundra swans (Cygnus colombianus) in single day counts (1977). Several indigenous and introduced fish species spawn and feed in the area, 31% of which is composed of standing and flowing water. Despite having a management plan in place, human intervention has been on the rise in the past few years. Ramsar site no. 1463. Most recent RIS information: 2005.

Creston Valley. 21/02/94; British Columbia; 6,970 ha; 49º10’N 116º35’W. Wildlife Management Area. A wide river delta entering the deep waters of Kootenay Lake. Most of the wetlands are under some form of water control regime. The site exhibits an interesting interface between marsh and riparian habitats and dry mountain forest, which provides some of the most important waterbird habitat in British Columbia. During spring and autumn migration, spectacular concentrations of birds (over 40,000) may gather. The area provides significant habitat for numerous mammals, fish, plants, birds and reptiles that are rare or endangered. Archaeological surveys confirm that Aboriginal peoples have lived in the area for thousands of years. Human activities consist of recreation. Powered vessels are prohibited. Some agricultural activity takes place as a management tool and there is a visitors’ center. Ramsar site no. 649. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Delta Marsh. 24/05/82; Manitoba; 23,000 ha; 50º05’N 098º00’W. A complex of freshwater embayments and marshes connected with Lake Manitoba by sandy beach ridges. The shallow wetlands are subject to wind tides in the lake. Dominant vegetation are reedbeds with wet prairie at higher elevations. The area is internationally important for various species of staging waterbirds, especially Anatidae(ducks, geese, swans, etc.). A research station is active in waterbird research and wetland habitat management. Ramsar site no. 238. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Dewey Soper Migratory Bird Sanctuary. 24/05/82; Northwest Territories; 815,900 ha; 66º10’N 074º00’W. Migratory Bird Sanctuary. An intertidal zone with a series of raised beaches and a marshy plain of mosses and sedges, dotted with shallow lakes and swamps, drained by many small, slow-flowing streams. The area supports the largest goose colony in the world (30% of those breeding in Canada) and more than one million during molting, as well as abundant numbers of various other breeding species. Mammals include Ragifer arcticus, large numbers of which summer here before migrating to winter on Baffin Island. Ramsar site no. 249. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Fraser River Delta. 24/05/82; British Columbia; 20,682 ha; 49º06'00"N 123º03'00"W. IBA, WHSRN. The site is formed by six components (Burns Bog, Sturgeon Bank, South Arm Marshes, Boundary Bay, Serpentine, and the former 'Alaksen' Ramsar Site), all in the Metro Vancouver Region and part of the the most important river delta/estuary for fish and birds on the west coast of Canada. The complex provides an internationally critical migratory stopover area for the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri), one of the most common shorebirds in the western hemisphere. It provides feeding and roosting sites to about 250,000 migrating and wintering waterfowl and 1 million shorebirds, regularly supporting the threshold of 1% of a population of a species or subspecies of waterbird. A number of Provincially- and Federally-listed fish species of concern can be found within the estuarine habitats, including Acipenser transmontanus, Acipenser medirostris, and Thaleichthys pacificus. The complexity of ecosystems found in the site, such as estuarine marsh, mudflats, floodplains, sloughs and river channels are all critical feeding and rearing areas for anadromous salmon during their transition between river and marine stages of their life cycle. Some of the subsites are used for low-impact recreation, but the site is mostly reserved for wildlife habitat conservation. The site was renamed and vastly extended in 2012 from 586 to 20,682 hectares. Ramsar site no. 243. Most recent RIS information: 2012.

Grand Codroy Estuary. 27/05/87; Newfoundland; 925 ha; 47º50’N 059º18’W. Provincial No-Hunting Area. One of the most productive of Newfoundland’s few estuarine wetland sites. The site includes of four islands, intertidal sandbars, and mudflats supporting rich growths of Zostera, surrounded by cultivated grassland. The Zostera beds are an important food source for up to 3,000 fall staging Branta canadensis. Other waterbirds occurring in large numbers include ducks. There is a seasonal visitors’ center. Ramsar site no. 364. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Hay-Zama Lakes. 24/05/82; Alberta; 50,000 ha; 58º30’N 119º00’W. Alberta Fish and Wildlife Crown Reservation. A vast wetland complex associated with the Peace River consisting of a series of freshwater lakes, floodplains and river deltas. The site holds large numbers of ducks (200,000 in fall) and geese (up to 177,000) during spring and fall migrations. Ramsar site no. 242. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Lac Saint-François. 27/05/87; Québec; 2,310 ha; 45º02’N 074º29’W. National Wildlife Area. One of the largest remaining areas of shoreline marsh not directly modified. Sharing the border with the USA, the site includes a shallow freshwater lake, rivers, streams, ponds and flooded woodland, with mature forest on elevated land. The vegetation of the area includes 40 species rare in Quebec and Canada. There is a rich fauna of mammals, reptiles and amphibians, while over 75 species of fish inhabit the waters. Breeding and staging waterbirds include several species of ducks. Ramsar site no. 361. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Lac Saint-Pierre. 27/05/98; Québec; 11,952 ha; 46º08’N 072º39’W. Lac Saint-Pierre includes an archipelago of about 100 islands, several large bays and a very large area of open water. The lake is surrounded by the largest freshwater floodplain of Quebec. Each year at least 7,000 ha of meadows, shrub areas, woods and cultivated land are flooded. The site includes a section of Saint-Laurent (St. Lawrence) River between Sorel and Trois-Rivières, about 65 km east of Montreal. Many of the plant species in the site are regionally or nationally threatened. The seasonally flooded agricultural land is used each spring as a stopover by 350,000 waterbirds (ducks and geese), including more than 70,000 Branta canadensis. Aquatic plants cover more than 6,200 ha and are used by fishes for reproduction and feeding. In the site, the main human activities are extensive agriculture and recreation. In the surroundings, land is privately owned, and much of the area is used for agriculture. Lac Saint-Pierre, and especially the archipelago, is much used for water sports, sport fishing, hunting and birdwatching. Ramsar site no. 949. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Last Mountain Lake. 24/05/82; Saskatchewan; 15,602 ha; 51º20’N 105º15’W. International Biological Programme Site; National Wildlife Area, Migratory Bird Sanctuary; National Historic Site. A network of shallow, marshy bays and inlets, separated by points and islands, including potholes and saline wetlands supporting fringing reedbeds. During the fall migration, up to 75,000 Grus canadensis cranes and 400,000 Anatidae(ducks, geese, swans, etc.) rest and feed here. The islands support nesting colonies of numerous species of water and prairie birds. The site serves as a drought refuge for birds and as wintering habitat for deer, supports various prairie mammals, and provides some of the richest spawning and nursery grounds in Saskatchewan for numerous fish species, including the vulnerable fish Ictiobus cyprinellus, rare over most of its range. A self-guided information programme is available for visitors, and recreational use is increasing. Ramsar site no. 239. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Long Point. 24/05/82; Ontario; 13,730 ha; 42º35’N 080º15’W. Biosphere Reserve; National Wildlife Area. A sandy spit, of marshes, wet meadows, wooded swamps, beaches and dunes. The microclimate has led to the development of unusual plant associations. Many plant species occur at the extreme northern limit of their range and include 3 endemic and 42 species rare in Ontario. A major resting and feeding area for migratory waterbirds. Up to 30,000 Cygnus c. columbianus pass through in spring, and more than 10% of the world populations of Aythya valisineria and A. americana congregate in spring and fall. An important stop-over point for migratory land birds, bats and the butterfly Danaus plexippus. 26 species of reptiles and amphibians occur in the area, including several threatened species. A research facility exists and there is managed duck hunting. Ramsar site no. 237. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Malpeque Bay. 28/04/88; Prince Edward Island; 24,440 ha; 46º32’N 063º48’W. Provincial Wildlife Management Area. An estuarine embayment of extensive shallow open water, intertidal flats, and islands, fringed in places by saltmarsh and protected from the sea by a sandspit and dune formation with a number of saline ponds. The intertidal flats support beds of Zostera, an abundant food source for large numbers of migratory waterbirds. Up to 20,000 Branta canadensis stage here in spring and fall. Migratory shorebirds, including two species of duck, are abundant in the fall. The area is important for supporting large nesting colonies of Ardeidae (herons, bitterns, etc.), and Phalacrocoracidae. Ramsar site no. 399. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Mary's Point. 24/05/82; New Brunswick; 1,200 ha; 45º44’N 064º45’W. Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve, National Wildlife Area. A peninsula of various terrestrial habitats bordered by gravel beaches and extensive intertidal mudflats, supporting the world’s highest known density of the crustaceans Corophium volutator, the principle food source for millions of migratory shorebirds staging here during the fall migration. 200,000 Calidris pusilla may be present at one time in late summer and more than two million pass through in August. Numerous species of other shorebirds occur in large numbers. A trail, viewing deck, and interpretation center are available. Ramsar site no. 236. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Matchedash Bay Provincial Wildlife Area. 31/10/96; Ontario; 1,840 ha; 44º44’N 079º40’W. Provincial Wildlife Area. A wetland characterized by various habitats including swamps, fens, cattail marshes, beaver ponds; permanent freshwater lakes; upland hardwood forest, agricultural lands, native grass meadows and a unique, coniferous wetland forest. In total, over 170 species of birds are present, some provincially rare. The area is provincially important for various species of breeding waterfowl, and for spring and fall staging. 568 species of vascular plants are present. The site also supports 17 species of herpetiles. Various recreational activities are popular. Development of cottages, marinas, and urban growth in the surroundings will affect the site. Water quality is serious public concern. Ramsar site no. 866. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

McConnell River. 24/05/82; Northwest Territories; 32,800 ha; 60º50’N 094º20’W. Migratory Bird Sanctuary. A complex of coastal marshes and inland wet meadows around the mouth of the McConnell River. The plains consist of shallow ponds and lakes. Internationally important for breeding up to 200,000 pairs of Anser c. caerulescens, as well as Branta canadensis and large numbers of nesting Anatidae(ducks, geese, swans, etc.) (mostly ducks) and shorebirds. Ramsar site no. 248. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Mer Bleue Conservation Area. 26/09/95; Ontario; 3,447 ha; 45º18’N 075º45’W. Provincial Wetland, Area of Scientific Interest. Fifty per cent of Mer Bleue is a raised boreal peat dome - Sphagnum bog, a system typically occurring further north. Hydrological features are unusual with saline groundwater sources and six meter thick peat deposits. The borders of the bog form a typical environment, much of which has been transformed into pond and marsh by Castor canadensis. Three vegetation types are present: black spruce forest, low-lying bog vegetation (includes numerous species of orchids) and heath type. Due to the undisturbed and unique habitat numerous significant or rare fauna are found here, including 22 species of mammal. A small area inside the site is occupied by the Geomagnetic Laboratory. Land uses include recreation, research and agriculture. The site's area was extended by 243 ha in May 2001. Ramsar site no. 755. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Minesing Swamp. 31/10/96; Ontario; 6,000 ha; 44º23’N 080º52’W. Area of Natural and Scientific Interest, Provincially Significant Wetland. Southern Ontario’s largest and most diverse wetland, consisting of boreal wetland and deciduous bottomland vegetation complexes. The swamp’s hydrology provides for an interconnected network of swamps, fens, bogs and marshes. A diverse flora and fauna are present, consisting of species rare or near the limits of their geographical range. The site is important for staging thousands of migratory waterfowl. One of Ontario’s largest white-tailed deer populations winter in the swamp, which includes the largest pure stand of silver maple in the province. An important area for recreation and tourism. The swamp plays an important role in moderating floods. Ramsar site no. 865. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Musquodoboit Harbour. 27/05/87; Nova Scotia; 1,925 ha; 44º42’N 063º06’W. Provincial Park, Game Sanctuary. A complex of intertidal sand and mudflats with scattered islands protected from the sea by a sand spit (Martinique Beach) and fringed by saltmarsh. Strong tidal flow allows the estuary to remain ice-free during the winter. The mudflats support extensive beds of Zostera and abundant invertebrates, providing food for large numbers of staging and wintering waterbirds. One of the most important coastal staging and wintering sites for Branta canadensis (up to 6,000 and 3,000 respectively). Erosion may eventually destroy the protective spit. Ramsar site no. 369. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Oak Hammock Marsh. 27/05/87; Manitoba; 3,600 ha; 50º10’N 097º06’W. A restored complex of freshwater marshland and marginal agricultural land under intensive management to encourage nesting and staging waterbirds. Regulated water levels provide optimum conditions for nesting ducks and "lure" crops promote flock retention and prevent damage to commercial crops. Numbers of migratory geese may reach 100,000 in both spring and fall, while spring concentrations of migratory shorebirds have reached 30,000 individuals. Being close to the urban area of Winnipeg, the site is important for conservation-based education and recreation. Ramsar site no. 366. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Old Crow Flats. 24/05/82; Yukon Territory; 617,000 ha; 67º34’N 139º50’W. Protected under the Yukon Wildlife Ordinance and Migratory Birds Convention Act. A vast plain (in fact, an ancient lake bottom) of meandering tributaries and perched wetlands with more than 2,000 freshwater lakes formed in depressions left by melting ice-blocks. Habitats include peatlands, sedge marshes, scattered trees, and forest stands. An extremely important area for breeding waterbirds. Up to 300,000 birds nest, with numbers increasing in the post-breeding period as birds gather to molt, feed and rest prior to migration. Indigenous people take an economically important harvest of muskrats. The area includes some of the richest archaeological sites of early human habitation in North America. Some oil exploration has occurred. Ramsar site no. 244. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Peace-Athabasca Delta. 24/05/82; Alberta; 321,300 ha; 58º42’N 111º08’W. World Heritage Site; National Park. Composed of three river deltas and four large freshwater lakes with rich growths of aquatic vegetation, linked to Lake Athabasca by meandering river channels. Underlain by permafrost, there are expanses of open grass and sedge meadows interspersed with hundreds of perched wetland basins, giving rise to thousands of kilometers of shoreline during spring high water. One of the most important nesting, resting and feeding areas for numerous species of waterbirds in North America. Up to 400,000 birds occur during spring migration, and more than one million occur in the fall. The delta meadows provide grazing for several hundred free-roaming bison, one of 44 other mammals recorded. Ramsar site no. 241. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Point Pelee. 27/05/87; Ontario; 1,564 ha; 41º59’N 082º30’W. National Park. A spit resulting from erosion and deposition, bordered by forested, coastal dunes and beach ridges, and an 850ha peat marsh overlain by sand. The marsh occupies a closed drainage system and includes small lakes and ponds. Due to their southerly location, the marshes are unique in Canada, supporting four major vegetation communities. Several species of Anatidae(ducks, geese, swans, etc.) and other waterbirds breed in the marshes, but the nearshore waters of Lake Erie support spectacular concentrations of staging ducks, notably Mergus serrator and M. merganser. Point Pelee is an internationally important resting area for the migratory butterfly Danaus plexippus. Ramsar site no. 368. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Polar Bear Pass. 24/05/82; Northwest Territories; 262,400 ha; 75º43’N 098º40’W. International Biological Programme Site; National Wildlife Area. A wetland oasis in a dry high Arctic ‘desert’ consisting of a valley floor dotted with numerous lakes, tundra ponds and exceptionally productive meadows, grasses, sedges, mosses, lichens and flowering plants. A super-abundance of insects provide food for large numbers of breeding shorebirds (12 species). An important resting and feeding area for migrating birds. The pass takes its name from the polar bears migrating through from March to November. The purpose of most visits are for wildlife research or ecological studies. Ramsar site no. 245. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Polar Bear Provincial Park. 27/05/87; Ontario; 2,408,700 ha; 52º30’N 084º30’W. Provincial Park. A vast wetland complex (Canada’s second largest Ramsar site), embracing a series of beach ridges interspersed with ponds, bogs, fens and marshes subject to salt water inundation that includes the worlds most southerly example of tundra ecosystem. The area regularly supports hundreds of thousands of important populations of Anatidae(ducks, geese, swans, etc.), a breeding colony of more than 50,000, and during migration more than one million geese (Anser C. caerulescens). During migration the lowlands support a substantial proportion of the central Arctic breeding population of Calidris canutus and the entire breeding population of Limosa fedoa. Numerous species of large mammals are present. Ramsar site no. 360. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Queen Maud Gulf. 24/05/82; Northwest Territories; 6,278,200 ha; 67º00’N 102º00’W. Migratory Bird Sanctuary. Canada’s largest Ramsar site embraces a vast tundra plain comprising a huge area of low-lying wet sedge meadows and marsh tundra, interspersed with communities of lichens, mosses and vascular plants. The area includes open sea, coastal bays, intertidal zones, tidal estuaries, deltas, lowland rivers and freshwater lakes. Internationally important for various species of nesting waterbirds, especially breeding geese who nest and molt here from May to August. The raptor Falco peregrinus tundrius (endangered in North America) is relatively common. The site is also important for seals and the large mammals, Ragifer arcticus (100,000 in 1988) and Ovibos moschatus. Ramsar site no. 246. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Quill Lakes. 27/05/87; Saskatchewan; 63,500 ha; 51º55’N 104º20’W. International Biological Programme Site. Surrounded by glacial moraines, Canada’s largest saline lake consists of a series of lakes forming the center of a closed drainage basin on muddy or sandy alkaline flats. Salinity limits the floral diversity of the lakes. An internationally important area for nesting and staging waterbirds during both spring and fall migrations, with up to 155,000 individuals present at one time. Birds include 85,000 geese, 100,000 ducks, 12,000 cranes and the endangered plover Charadrius melodus, which breeds at the site. Ramsar site no. 365. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Rasmussen Lowlands. 24/05/82; Northwest Territories; 300,000 ha; 68º40’N 093º00’W. A flat, poorly drained area recently emerged from the sea as a result of post-glacial rise of land relative to sea level. The lowlands contain numerous lakes and ponds of major importance for breeding (supports half a million nesting shorebirds) and summering waterbirds. Around 6% of the Canadian breeding population of Cygnus c. columbianus use the site, as do other summering Anatidae(ducks, geese, swans, etc.). Ramsar site no. 247. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Shepody Bay. 27/05/87; New Brunswick; 12,200 ha; 45º47’N 064º35’W. Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve. A tidal embayment of saltmarsh, eroding coastline with sand and gravel beaches and extensive intertidal mudflats. The mudflats support internationally important numbers of the crustacean Corophium volutator, the principle food source for millions of fall migrating shorebirds. 400,000 Calidris pusilla may be present at one time in late summer. More than two million pass through in August, as do large numbers of other shorebirds. A shorebird research station is available. Ramsar site no. 363. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Southern Bight-Minas Basin. 05/11/87; Nova Scotia; 26,800 ha; 45º13’N 064º16’W. Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve; National Wildlife Area. An estuarine embayment surrounded by uplands interspersed with saltmarshes. High tidal amplitudes expose extensive intertidal sand and mud flats that attract large numbers of various species of staging waterbirds, including Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans, etc.), Calidris pusilla (over 100,000) and C. minutilla (up to 10,000). There is unregulated harvesting of polychaetes for the bait fishing business. Ramsar site no. 379. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Southern James Bay (Moose River & Hannah Bay). 27/05/87; Ontario; 25,290 ha; 51º20’N 080º25’W. Hannah Bay and Moose River Migratory Bird Sanctuaries. James Bay, a shallow, extension of Hudson Bay, is one of the most important staging areas in northern North America for migratory, Arctic-breeding waterbirds. The area consists of mudflats, intertidal marsh, meadow marsh, fens and bogs and is a late fall staging ground for large numbers of geese, up to 75,000 at one time, and ducks. Substantial numbers of diving sea ducks occur offshore. Ramsar site no. 367. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

St. Clair. 16/10/85; Ontario; 244 ha; 42º22’N 082º22’W. National Wildlife Area. Extensive system of marshes and dune ridges along Lake St. Clair. One of southern Canada’s most important resting, feeding and breeding areas for migratory waterbirds. Peak numbers in spring reach 360,000 individuals, with up to 150,000 in the fall. Almost 25% of the North American population of Cygnus c. columbianus passes through the area in spring. Fall migrants include over 200,000 Branta canadensis, more than 18% of the world population of Aythya valisineria, and large numbers of other ducks. The area supports a number of rare or threatened amphibians and reptiles. Ramsar site no. 319. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Tabusintac Lagoon & River Estuary. 10/06/93; New Brunswick; 4,997 ha; 47º20’N 064º56’W. Protected Area. A coastal lagoon system protected from the Gulf of St. Lawrence by a barrier beach and dune system, composed of sub- and intertidal estuarine water, flats, dunes, beaches and islands. Dominant vegetation is saltmarsh and forest. A highly productive system with 80% of the area supporting Zostera marina. The beach system, considered as a tern "core colony" of importance due to high reproductive success rates, supports the second largest nesting colony in New Brunswick. The site is a major waterbird concentration area during spring and autumn migration for a high diversity of shore and waterbirds. Human activities include controlled bird hunting, clam digging, fishing, and using all-terrain vehicles. The surrounding area supports agriculture and peat extraction. Ramsar site no. 612. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

Whooping Crane Summer Range. 24/05/82; Alberta, NW Territories; 1,689,500 ha; 60º15’N 113º15’W. World Heritage site, International Biological Programme Site, National Park. A huge complex of thousands of basically continuous water bodies including lakes, bogs, marshes, shallow ponds and streams. This site is of unique importance as the only remaining natural nesting area for the endangered whooping crane Grus americana. Each pair requires an extensive breeding territory to assure the survival of its single chick. Ramsar site no. 240. Most recent RIS information: 2001.

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