The Ramsar 'Toolkit': Handbooks for the Wise Use of Wetlands


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Handbook 5: Establishing and strengthening local communities' and indigenous people's participation in the management of wetlands


Case Studies on Local and Indigenous People's Involvement in Wetland Management

Commissioned for the project in response to Ramsar Recommendation 6.3

[This collection of case studies is posted in support of Handbook 5 and  Ramsar COP7 DOC. 18.1.]

Recommendation 6.3 of the Ramsar Conference of Parties (Brisbane, 1996) called upon the Contracting Parties "to make specific efforts to encourage active and informed participation of local and indigenous people at Ramsar listed sites and other wetlands and their catchments, and their direct involvement, through appropriate mechanisms, in wetland management." The Parties assigned the Bureau of the Convention (secretariat), working with IUCN-The World Conservation Union, the World Wide Fund for Nature, Caddo Lake Institute (USA) and Kushiro International Wetlands Center (Japan), the task of developing guidelines to assist the Contracting Parties in such efforts.

In response to Ramsar’s Recommendation 6.3, a project was set up by the IUCN Social Policy Group (SPG) in close coordination with a steering committee composed of representatives from the aforementioned organizations, plus the US NGO Ramsar Committee, which became actively involved in the process. The project began by commissioning 23 case studies from the seven Ramsar regions representing a balanced variety of wetland ecosystem types, conservation issues, and forms of local involvement. The lessons learned and policy recommendations from these case studies were synthesized in order to produce draft guidelines for local and indigenous people’s involvement in wetland management. Two regional technical workshops were held in order to discuss the guidelines, and comments received were incorporated into a subsequent draft of the guidelines, which was then distributed for a much wider review by indigenous people’s organizations, practitioners of participatory natural resource management, and wetland experts. The guidelines were endorsed by the 21st meeting of the Ramsar Convention Standing Committee for transmission to the 7th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties (San José, Costa Rica, May 1999).

The case studies

Twenty-two of the 23 case studies are now available to be downloaded (in Word 6 for Windows 95 format). Case studies are listed below by country in alphabetic order. All case studies are in English, unless otherwise noted.  The files are posted here more or less "as is", as the authors sent them, and have not been edited by the Ramsar Bureau. The views expressed in the case studies are those of the authors, and should not be attributed to the Ramsar Bureau or any of the project partners.

The Ramsar Bureau gratefully acknowledges financial contributions from Environment Australia; the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Land; and the UK Department of Environment, which made these case studies possible.

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Australia: Blyth and Liverpool Wetlands, Northern Territory


Located in Arnhem Land of the Northern Territory, these wetlands are river deltas which include intertidal marshes and saltflats, mangrove swamps, lakes and freshwater marshes, and flooded forests. The primary threats to conservation include commercial development (mining), feral pigs and cattle, and sea level rise. The indigenous people own the land under inalienable freehold title, and are seeking to maintain aspects of their traditional lifestyle (including some hunting and gathering activities). Management planning for the wetlands has been facilitated by a statutory authority, the Northern Land Council, in co-operation with the Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation and the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Dr Max Finlayson, Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist
Mr Dean Yibarbuk, Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation
Ms Lisa Thurtell, Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist
Mr Michael Storrs, Northern Land Council
Mr Peter Cooke, Northern Land Council

Contact Information
Dr Max Finlayson
Head of Wetland Ecology and Conservation
Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist
Locked Bag 2
NT 0886 Jabiru 2, Australia
Tel: +61 8 897 99756 / 92104 / Fax: +61 8 897 92149

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Brazil: Baia do Castelo, Mato Grosso do Sul State


Located in the sparsely inhabited Pantanal Region, Baia do Castelo includes a variety of inland wetland types, including riverine floodplains, permanent freshwater lakes, and seasonal freshwater lakes. The Pantanal functions as a big water buffer system, releasing very slowly the water accumulated during the rainy season. The major conservation issue is the construction of a proposed inland water highway (the Hydrovia), which entails dredging a channel which approximately follows the course of the upper Paraguay River as far as Mato Grosso State in the North, a major grain producing area. This would greatly modify the seasonal flooding patterns which are so important for the maintenance of the region’s unique assemblage of plants and animals. Given the low population densities, there are few stakeholders near Baia do Castelo apart from a wealthy farmer/land owner and some small commercial enterprises. They have become awakened to the value of the ecosystem through activities of several conservation organizations and a governmental research center (CPAP), but they are not directly involved in management activities, per se.

Author and Contact Information
Ms Debora Fernandes Calheiros
Center for Agricultural Research in the Pantanal (CPAP)
Brazilian Corporation for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA)
Rua 21 de Setembro, 1880,
Caixa Postal 109 - CEP: 79.320-900
Corumba - MS, Brazil
Tel: +55 67 231 1430 / Fax: +55 67 231 1011

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Cameroon: Waza-Logone Floodplain, Extreme North Province


The Waza-Logone floodplain comprises about 800,000 hectares in the northernmost province of Cameroon, on the border of Chad and Nigeria. An IUCN project is rehabilitating the flood regime through various infrastructure, and has developed collaborative management agreements with local stakeholders around the 71,000 hectare Waza National Park, a globally important center of biodiversity which includes elephants, lions, giraffes, kobs, and numerous bird species. The agreements permit fishermen, herders, and grass collectors legal access to the park for specific resource uses. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Authors and Contact Information
Mr Daniel Ngantou and Mr Roger Kouokam
IUCN Project Office Cameroon (Waza-Logone)
BP 284
Maroua, Cameroon
Sat tel: +871 761 847 257 / Sat Fax: +871 761 847 259 / Tel/Fax: +237 29 2271,

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Canada: Grand Codroy Estuary, Province of Newfoundland


Grand Codroy Estuary is located on the west coast of the Island of Newfoundland, approximately 30 km North of Port Aux Basques. It is part of the Atlantic Flyway of North America. There are no major threats to the wetland, but there is a potential for over-development of the area due to its attraction for second homes. Locals are involved by providing local ecological knowledge, membership in associations, supporting stewardship agreements, and providing labour and resources for conservation measures.

Author and Contact Information
Mr Michael Cahill
Eastern Habitat Joint Venture Program Manager
Newfoundland and Labrador
PO Box 8700
St. John's, AIB 4J6 Newfoundland, Canada
Tel: +1 709 729 25 48 / Fax: +1 709 729 66 29

ftp.gif (198 bytes)China: Yellow River Delta, Shandong Province


The Yellow River Delta includes a combination of intertidal mud, sand and salt flats as well as other coastal wetlands. Due to the heavy silt content of the river, the delta extends into the sea at the rate of about 2.2 km per year. There are a wide variety of human activities in the area, including oil and natural gas industries, large livestock operations, collective farms, subsistence collection of shell fish, and a military base, all of which have an impact on the wetland ecosystem. The local administrative authority has opened up a process of consultation with local communities. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Authors and Contact Information

Mr Yan Chenggao
Deputy Division Chief
Department of the Wildlife Conservation
The Ministry of Forestry
Beijing, People's Republic of China
Tel/Fax: +86 10 642 37735
Mr Yuan Jun
Senior Technical Officer
Wetlands International-China Programme
Room 501, Grand Forest Hotel, No.19A, Beisanhuan Zhonglu Road
Beijing, P.R.China 100029
Tel: +86 10 620 58405 / 620 58418 / Fax: +86 10 623 77031

ftp.gif (198 bytes)England: Pevensey Levels, East Sussex Country


The Pevensey Levels, an area of marsh and wet grasslands in southern England, face many of the challenges confronting the management of wetlands throughout the world. Numerous land owners have a variety of objectives for utilising the wetlands and there are overlaps and gaps in the responsibilities of the various agencies involved. The Levels were a candidate Ramsar site until 1990, but have suffered degradation in recent years due to drainage improvement and agricultural intensification. This case study provides details on how the various stakeholders have been involved in the decision-making process, leading to more sustainable management. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Authors and Contact Information

Mr David Gasca-Tucker
Department of Geography
University College London
2 Wakefield Street
London WC1N 61PG, UK
Tel: +44 171 813 5206
Fax: +44 171 813 5283
Dr Mike Acreman
Head of River Basin and Hydro-ecological Management and Freshwater Management Adviser to IUCN
Institute of Hydrology
Crowmarsh Gifford
Wallingford OX10 8BB, UK
Tel: +44 1491 692 443 Fax: +44 1491 692 424

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Guinea-Bissau: Rio Grande de Buba


Rio Grande de Buba, situated on the southwestern coast of Guinea Bissau, is a brackish estuary with very productive fisheries, a high density of marine and terrestrial mammals, and a wide range of bird-life. Sixty-five percent of Guinea Bissau’s population of 1.1m people reside along the coasts and subsist off the natural resource base. The main conservation issues relate to overfishing of Barracuda and to deforestation in the watershed. Since the early 1990s IUCN has been facilitating the development of collaborative management arrangements between local villages and government agencies for the sustainable use of productive coastal fisheries. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Mr Philippe Tous
Assistant Technique, Rio de Grande de Buba
Bureau de l'UICN en Guinée-Bissau
Apartado 23, 1031 Bissau Codex, Guinée-Bissau
Tel: +245 20 12 30 / Fax: +245 20 11 68

ftp.gif (198 bytes)India: Keoladeo National Park, Rajastan State


Keoladeo National Park is located near Bharatpur town on the western edge of the Gangetic plains at the confluence of two tributaries, the Gambir and Bangane. A conflict developed between the Park authorities and the local population when a national policy (the Wildlife Protection Act) took effect in 1972, leading the authorities to bar access to the park for traditional practices such as cattle grazing. Participatory rural appraisals were facilitated by WWF in order to develop compromises that might lead to more sustainable management. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Mr Biksham Gujja
Head, Wetlands Programme
World Wide Fund for Nature
rue de Mont Blanc
CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland
Tel: +4122 364 9111 / Fax: +4122 364 3239

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Italy: Le Cesine, Province of Apulia


Le Cesine is an intertidal marsh located in Apulia, along the southern Adriatic coast, and is the last surviving stretch of what was once a vast marshland extending from Brindisi to Otranto. The primary conservation challenges include tourism development along the coast. Local opposition to the protected area was gradually changed to support through environmental education efforts of WWF-Italy, and recognition that the marsh represents a valuable local resource that can also contribute to the local economy through its scenic value.

Author and Contact Information
Ms Neida Finistauri
Voc. S. Quirico, 79
05020 Avigliano Umbro (TR), Italy
Tel. +39744935292 / Fax: +39744401065

 ftp.gif (198 bytes)Japan: Yatsu Tidal Flat, Tokyo Bay


Yatsu Higata is a tidal mudflat site located in the deepest northern end of the Tokyo Bay. It is almost entirely surrounded by urban, built-up lands, and yet it remains connected to Tokyo Bay by two narrow channels, which allow inflow and outflow of tides. Given that 90% of tidal flats in Tokyo Bay have been reclaimed, Yatsu Higata plays an important role as a staging and wintering site for migratory waterbirds on the East Asia-Australasian Flyway. The primary threats to conservation relate to the water quality coming from Tokyo Bay. Local authorities, conservation organizations and citizens are involved in helping to manage the site through preparation of the management plan, waste collection, water quality monitoring, and bird monitoring.

Authors and Contact Information

Mr Sadayosi Tobai
Nihonseimei Akabanebashi
Bldg 6F, 3-1-14 Shiba, Minato-ku,
105-0014 Tokyo, Japan
Tel: +813 3769 1713
Fax: +813 3769 1717
Mr Yatsu Hasegawa
Yatsu Tidalflat Nature Observation Centre
3-chome Yatsu
Narashino City, Japan
Tel: +81 474 54 8416
Fax: +81 474 52 2494

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Malaysia: Kampung Kuantan, Selangor State


Kampung Kuantan is located 18 km upstream from the estuary of the Selangor River. Mangroves in the area attract a species of firefly (Pteroptyx tener) which produces a synchronized flashing pattern, resembling the blinking lights of a decorated Christmas tree. A local entrepreneur developed a commercial boating enterprise so that tourists can observe the fireflies, which led to some further tourism development in the area. The primary threat to the firefly habitat is a river diversion project upstream, which will result in decreased freshwater flushing, along with uncontrolled tourism development in the area. Several local stakeholders – including the village security and development council and the local entrepreneur – are involved in site management through provision of technical assistance, advice on conservation and management issues, and dissemination of education and awareness materials.

Authors and Contact Information
Mr Jamil bin Hamzah and Suzana Mohkeri
Global Environmental Network
7A, Jalan 19/29
46300 Petaling Jaya
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Tel: +60 3 757 2007 or 757 4007 / Fax: +60 3 757 7003

 ftp.gif (198 bytes)Mauritania: Diawling National Park, Senegal River Delta


Diawling National Park is a Ramsar site located in southernmost Mauritania in the delta of the Senegal River. Until the 1960s the lower delta of the Senegal river was an area of extraordinary ecological richness, consisting of a mosaic of dunes, floodplains and estuarine zones with mangroves. Several thousand people, including fishermen, herders and mat weavers, found a livelihood there. Since then the environmental quality has deteriorated, first by repeated drought, and later by declines in freshwater brought about by a large salt-water intrusion barrage upstream. A rehabilitation project set up by IUCN is restoring the seasonal flood to the Park, and is employing the local environmental knowledge of key stakeholders to regenerate the ecosystem. This has had a very positive impact on local livelihoods. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Dr Olivier Hamerlynck
Wetlands Technical Advisor
IUCN Project Office Mauritania
Parc National du Diawling
BP 3935
Nouakchott, Mauritania
Tel: +222 2 51 276 / Fax: +222 2 51 276

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Mexico: Coastal Wetlands, Sonora State [Not yet received from the authors]


These coastal wetlands of southern Sonora are situated on the coast in three important deltas, those of the Yaqui, Mayo and Fuerte rivers. There are 62,000 hectares of wetlands, 62% of which are estuaries, and the rest of which are bays. These are wetlands of high biological diversity and are located along an important shore-bird and waterfowl migratory flyway. Effluents from intensive, irrigated agriculture pose the primary threat to conservation of the wetlands, followed by cattle husbandry, shrimp aquaculture and urbanisation. The primary stakeholders in the wetland are permanent and seasonal fisherman, ethno-linguistic groups (Yaquis and Mayos), aquaculturalists, farmers, livestock raisers, hunters, tourists, industry, and local residents. A strategic plan is now being developed by government agencies, academic institutions, NGOs and community representatives with support from the North American Wetland Conservation Council. Through a series of workshops beginning in 1994, stakeholders have had the opportunity to identify the major conservation issues confronting the wetlands, and to provide input to the strategic plan.

Authors and Contact Information

Msc Elena Chavarria Correa
Capitulo Sonora, Pronatura, A.C.
Bahia de Bacochibampo s/n
C.P. 85450
Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico
Tel / Fax: +52 662 1 1505
Dr Carlos Valdes Casillas
Centro de Conservación para el Aprovechamiento de Recursos Naturales
Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, campus Guaymas
Bahia de Bacochibampo s/n
C.P. 85450
Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico
Tel: +52 662 1 0364 / Fax: +52 662 1 0243

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Mexico: Sian Ka’an, Quintana Roo State


Sian Ka’an is a coastal limestone flat of around one million hectares located mid-way between Belize and Cancun on the eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. It is noted for its extensive mangrove stands and coral reefs. Unsustainable trends related to logging and land clearing for cattle were identified in the 1970s, and a management plan put in place for both a Biosphere Reserve and sustainable logging activities. This plan is based heavily on local Mayan Indians’ indigenous knowledge and uses of the ecosystem, and was developed through participatory methodologies. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Dr. Arturo López Ornat
Director Técnico, Programa ARAUCARIA
Pangea Consultores, S.L.
C/ Hilarión Eslava, 38, 5º Centro Dcha.
28015 Madrid, Spain
Tef: +91 544 38 48 / Fax: +91 544 15 91

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Papua New Guinea: Tonda Wildlife Management Area, TransFly Region


Tonda Wildlife Management Area on the southern extremity of Papua New Guinea’s border with Indonesia is PNG’s largest and oldest conservation area and its only Ramsar site. It is composed of open acacia woodlands, grasslands, melaleuca swamps and mangroves. Land and resources in the area are under customary ownership, which means that all management decisions are taken by the WMA committee composed of representatives from local clans. A WWF project is seeking to assist communities in their management tasks through capacity building in conservation science and management, and by linking the project with other conservation and development efforts at the eco-regional level, including neighboring Indonesia. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Mr Paul Chatterton
Cultural Ecology
1/57 Malabar Road
South Coogee NSW 2034, Australia
Tel: ++61 2 9315 7935 / Fax: ++61 2 9664 5258

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Peru: El Balsar de Huanchaco, Trujillo Province


The wetlands of El Balsar de Huanchaco consist of man-made pozas, or depressions, that fill from natural spring water but are slightly brackish owing to their location on the coast. These pozas are used for growing a type of reed called la tortora (Scirpus californicus) used for construction of small fishing boats. The practice of growing reeds in this area dates from at least 1,500 years. The wetlands also serve as a migratory bird stopping point and are attracting tourists, both locally and internationally. The major threat to the wetland is from urbanisation and tourism development along the coast. People are building second homes in the area, which is only 20 minutes from Trujillo, a regional capital. The indigenous people who own and manage the wetlands today are organised in an artisanal fisherman’s association, which is working with local authorities and conservation NGOs to produce a management plan for the area. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Mr Victor Pulido Capurro
Programa de Conservacion y Desarrollo Sostenido de Humedales Peru
Paseo los Eucaliptos 285, Camacho,
La Molina, Lima 12, Peru
Tel +51 1 4375567 / Fax +51 1 4375567

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Russia: Dubna "Homeland of the Cranes", Moscow Region


The Dubna wetland and the surrounding area called the "Homeland of the Crane" is composed of 40,000 hectares in the northern part of Moscow region, Russia. The area contains a complex of older-birch swamps, raised pine-moss and transitional bogs, mixed coniferous forests and farmlands. The major threat to the wetland include a possible water pumping project for Moscow, which could significantly lower the water table, and development of summer homes. Awareness raising activities carried out by the International Crane Foundation, Community Conservation Consultants and Druzhina (a student conservation organisation based at Moscow State University) have succeeded in improving local understanding of the values of the wetland, and in mobilising support to preserve their integrity. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Ms Lena Smirnova
Leader of "Homeland of the Crane" Programme
Biodiversity Conservation Center
Krasnoarmeyskaya Str. 27, Apt. 3
125319 Moscow, Russia Federation
Tel: +7 095 151 3741 / Fax: +7 095 482 1888

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Scotland: Focus on the Firths Initiative


Firths are marine and coastal wetlands including large estuaries, sea areas and coastal hinterland. Firth is a Norse word meaning "arm of the sea." It refers to a sheltered sea area and estuary of a river, such as the Firth of Forth, or the sea surrounding a coastal district such as the Solway, Moray, and Cromarty Firths. They are transition zones where water changes from salty to fresh with a complex mosaic of different habitats. In common with coastlines in many countries, planning and management of firths is sectoral or locally based, by a diverse array of statutory bodies. It tends to be uncoordinated and without the communication between agencies required to ensure a clear overall plan is followed. In response to this, Scottish Natural Heritage developed a series of fora in which stakeholders can exchange information and establish integrated management plans. This is accompanied by a wide array of promotional/educational materials and a web site. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Dr Stephen Atkins
Scottish Natural Heritage, Secretariat
2 Anderson Place
EH6 5NP Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
Tel: +44 131 447 4784 / Fax: +44 131 446 2405

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Senegal: Djoudj National Park, St. Louis Region


The National Bird Park of Djoudj was created in 1971, and is located entirely in the deltaic ecosystem of the Senegal River Valley. The initial creation of the park saw the expulsion of a number of villages, some of which are now relocated on its periphery. This naturally engendered conflict, as the communities were deprived of access to the area that they had traditionally used – for resource gathering, herding, and agriculture – as well as to their sites of worship and their cemeteries. From the time of the creation of the park in 1971 until 1994, the government and park administrators attempted to enforce an exclusionary policy in which all activities within the park’s boundaries were deemed illegal. Since 1994, a new policy was adopted with the assistance of IUCN, one which seeks to regenerate natural resources in the impoverished areas, define the rights of usage, and place a value on local knowledge and uses of the ecosystems. Collaborative management plans have been developed for resources within the park, and small credit, water provision, and other eco-development activities have been established for communities surrounding the park.

Author and Contact Information
Mr Amadou Matar Diouf
Wetlands Programme Officer
IUCN Country Office Senegal
Avenue Bourguiba x Rue 3, Castors
PO Box 3215
Dakar, Senegal
Tel: +221 24 0545 / 25 00 06 / Fax: +221 24 9246

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Slovak Republic: Morava River Floodplains, Western Slovakia


The Morava River Floodplains are located in the most western part of Slovakia and are situated along the former "Iron Curtain" which was closed until 1990. The most valuable ecosystems are the floodplain's species-rich meadows. They make up the largest complex of alliance Cnidion venosi meadow communities in Central Europe, and are an important source of food and nesting places for rare and endangered bird species. The principal threats are an intensification of agriculture, river regulation, drainage and other destructive activities such as gravel mining. A project run by the DAPHNE Center for Applied Ecology is seeking to rehabilitate 150 hectares of arable or abandoned land in the flood plain to species rich meadows, and to sustainably manage 1,000 hectares of degraded meadows by direct subsidies to farmers. In the context of this project, a detailed management plan for meadows is being prepared, a monitoring system for revitalization is being introduced, and a system for financial incentive measures is being designed.

Authors and Contact Information
Dr Jan Seffer and Ms Viera Stanova
DAPHNE Centre for Applied Ecology
Hanulova 5/d
844 40 Bratislava
Slovak Republic
Tel./fax: +421 7 654 121 33
Tel.: +421 7 654 121 62

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Solomon Islands: Lake Tegano, East Rennell Island


The island of Rennell is a forest covered, coral atoll approximately 180 kilometres to the south of Guadalcanal, the main island in the Solomons Group. Lake Tegano, a World Heritage site in the eastern part of the island, is the largest lake in the South Pacific (excluding New Zealand and Australia). The ecosystem is generally in good condition owing to low population density (only 1,500 people inhabit this island of 155 sq. km) and its geographic isolation. Land is under customary ownership, and the resources of Lake Tegano are common property to the people from the four lakeside villages. The customary land and reef ownership system involves rights of resource use by family groups in specified areas. Participatory rural appraisals were conducted in the lakeside villages to assess present resource use and traditional management systems, and a resource management plan is being developed by the World Heritage/Ecotourism Programme with input from the resource owners.

Authors and Contact Information

Mr Ben Devi
Project Manager, World Heritage Program
Ministry of Commerce and Tourism
P.O. Box G26
Honiara, Solomon Islands
Tel. +677 26852 or 26858 / Fax +677 25084
Dr Elspeth J Wingham
Sunrise Valley
Upper Moutere
Nelson, New Zealand
Tel. +64 3 543 2621 / Fax +64 3 543 2141
E-mail :

ftp.gif (198 bytes)Tanzania: Tanga Coast, Tanga Region


Tanga is the most northern coastal administrative region in Tanzania, extending approximately 180 km south from the border with Kenya. The area contains marine waters, subtidal aquatic beds, coral reefs, rocky and sandy shore lines, estuaries, intertidal sand flats and marshes, and mangroves. The main human impact on the environment has been physical degradation represented by the use of dynamite on coral reefs, cutting of mangroves and the use of drag nets over seagrass beds. An IUCN collaborative management project has developed agreements in which local villagers have agreed to restrict the use of illegal techniques, close certain areas to fishing, and increase the mesh size of nets. The agreements are combined with various capacity building and develop activities, and with some capacity building for government officers to work within the new framework. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Mr Chris Horrill
Technical Advisor, Coral Reefs
IUCN Project Office
P.O. Box 5036
Tanga, Tanzania
Tel. +255 53 47463 / Fax: +255 53 47465

ftp.gif (198 bytes)United States of America: Caddo Lake, States of Texas and Louisiana


Caddo lake is part of a large, shallow wetland complex straddling the Texas and Louisiana borders. At Caddo Lake, as in much of the developed world, few indigenous peoples subsist on local wetlands. Most U.S. wetland communities are occupied by people who pursue other livelihoods. A local NGO, the Caddo Lake Institute, has developed strategies to reintroduce local people to their wetlands and to encourage their informed participation in sustainable management and stewardship. They seek to do this by improving the wetland science and surveillance skills of local people and their educational infrastructure. The Institute expands its impact by paying the marginal costs of local academics and school teachers to engage in research and educational activities that further steward principles. A summary of this case study is provided in Chapter 3.

Author and Contact Information
Dr Dwight Shellman
Caddo Lake Institute
PO Box 2710
Aspen, CO 81612-2710 USA
Tel: +1 970 925 2710 / Fax: +1 970 923 4245

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