Lake Malawi / Niassa / Nyasa donors and partners meeting, May 2003

02/07/2003

WWF Ecoregion Conservation Programme

 

LAKE MALAWI /NIASSA/NYASA ECOREGION

Report on the Donors and Partners Meeting

Compiled and Edited

by

Alaphia Wright, Facilitator
&
Jonas Chafota, WWF-SARPO

Club Makokola
12 - 13 May, 2003

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements
Acronyms
Executive Summary

1. Background
2. Objectives of the Meeting
3. Structure Methodology of the Meeting
4. Opening Presentations
4.1 Welcome
4.2 Opening Speech
5. Background Presentations
5.1 WWF-SARPO
5.2 Challenges for Conservation of the LMNN Ecoregions
5.3 WWF Living Waters Programme
5.4 RAMSAR Convention
5.5 DANIDA (Malawi)
5.6 FAO
5.7 SIDA
5.8 US State Department
5.9 WWF Tanzania Programme Office
6. Discussions
6.1 General
6.2 Discussion Methodology
6.3 Unsatisfactory Situations
6.4 Satisfactory Situations
6.5 Draft LMNN Basin Convention
6.6 Targets/Outputs
6.7 Sources of Funds
7. Closure
7.1 Closing Speech

ANNEXURES

Annex A: Opening Speech (PDF format) - G Mkondiwa
Annex B: Overview of the WWF Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa Ecoregion Conservation Programme (PDF format) - J Chafota
Annex C: The Challenges of Developing an Integrated Approach to the Management of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa and Its Catchment Resources (PDF format) - A Bulilarani
Annex D: Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (PDF format) - T Anada
Annex E: Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) (PDF format) - J Balarin
Annex F: The Convention on the Sustainable Development of Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa and Its Basin (PDF format) - FAO
Annex G: List of Participants
Annex H: Provisional Programme


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

WWF-SARPO wishes to thank the Governments of Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania for their support and the participants from these countries for their valuable contributions to the meeting.

The donors and partners are being thanked for showing a keen interest towards the development of a sustainable programme for the management of Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa both for biodiversity conservation and social development of the lakeshore communities.

Thanks to Precious Ntopa for assisting with the organisation and logistics of the meeting.

Finally, the meeting could not have been possible without funds provided by DGIS (The Netherlands) through the WWF Living Waters Programme and matching contributions from the Ramsar Bureau.


ACRONYMS

ADC Area Development Committee
CBO Community Based Organisation
CBNRM Community Based Natural Resources Management
CURE Co-ordination Unit for the Rehabilitation of the Environment
DDF District Development Fund
DDP District Development Plan
DEAP District Environmental Action Plan
DEM Decentralised Environmental Management
DESP Danida Environmental Support Programme
DHA Danish Hunters Association
EAP Environmental Action Plan
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
ENRM Environment and Natural Resources Management
ESP Environmental Support Programme
LMNN-ER Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa Ecoregion
HEP Hydro Electric Power
IWRM Intergrated Water Resources Management
M&E Monitoring and Evaluation
MEET Malawi Environment Endowment Trust
MIS Monitoring Information System
MoNREA Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Environmental Affairs
MSY Maximum Sustainable Yield
NCE National Committee on the Environment
NEAP National Environmental Action Plan
NGO Non Governmental Organisation
NR Natural Resources
NRC Natural Resources College
NRM Natural Resources Management
NSOER National State Of Environment Report
PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
SARPO Southern Africa Regional Programme Office
SE Socio-economic
SIP Sector Investment Programme
SOER State Of Environment Report
TCE Technical Committee on the Environment
TSP Training Support Programme
TTF Tripartite Task Force
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
USAID United States Agency for International Development
VDC Village Development Committee
VEAP Village Environmental Action plan
WESM Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi
WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development
ZACPLAN Zambezi Action Plan
ZAMCOM Zambezi Basin Commission


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Objectives

A Donor/Partner meeting for the Lake Malawi-Niassa-Nyasa Ecoregion (LMNN-ER) Conservation Programme was held from 12-13 May 2003 at Club Makokola, Mangochi, Lake Malawi. Some twenty-two participants attended the meeting. The purpose of the meeting was basically to:

  • Review ongoing activities and donor/partner interests
  • Identify and agree (for the further development of the programme) on scope, deliverables/outputs and required resources.
  • Propose co-ordination mechanisms, and
  • Consider the way forward (workout a summary/overall action plan)

The proceedings of the meeting were split into two main sections:

  • Plenary presentation reporting on various programmes in the LMNN basin, followed by discussion of the points raised in the presentations, and
  • Brainstorming and discussions to identify and agree on the way forward.

The meeting was conducted with the help of the usual visual aids - Electronic Data Projector (with Power point), overhead projector with transparencies, and flip charts. A Moderator/Facilitator guided the discussions. Contributions were captured on flip charts. In addition, the presenters submitted electronic versions of their presentations to WWF-SARPO. These later formed the basis for the full report. The atmosphere of the meeting was distinctly business-like and mutually supportive with the participants expressing their views frankly.

Presentations

The meeting was officially opened by Mr. George Mkondiwa, the Principal Secretary (PS), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs in Malawi. The opening session was followed by several presentations:

  • Mr. Jonas Chafota the LMNN-ER Conservation Programme Coordinator from WWF_SARPO, gave an update of the programme;
  • Mr. Alex Bulirani, of the Department of Natural Resources, Malawi spoke on the challenges of developing an integrated conservation programme in the ecoregion;
  • Mr. Denis Lendenbergue of WWF International, Switzerland reported on the living waters programme;
  • Dr Ananda Tiega, Executive Secretary of the RAMSA Convention introduced the RAMSA Convention to the participants;
  • Dr John Balarin presented the development and achievements of the Danida Support Programme to the Malawi Decentralized Management of Natural Resources Programme;
  • Mr. Ernest Makawa sketched FAO's involvement in efforts aimed at drafting a Lake Malawi/Nyassa/Niassa Basin Convention;
  • Mr. Thomas Andersson of SIDA highlighted the overall aspects guiding SIDA's in water management in the region;
  • Mr. Mario Merida from the US Regional Environment and Health Office, Southern Africa, Based in Gaborone Botswana informed the meeting that the office mostly supports initiatives of a trans-boundary nature, and
  • Mr. Hermann Mwageni of WWF-Tanzania, reported on DANIDA's planned support in the region. This includes K5m for a concept paper, K16m for support the co-ordination unit (of which K9m has earmarked for conservation and a further K10m for projects/programme to be agreed upon later.

Discussions

The discussions following the individual presentations were mostly to do with matters of clarity to issues and these were handled to the satisfaction of the meeting. An important overall realization from the discussion was that the various initiation, projects and programmes operational in the LMNN basin were clearly complementary and supportive of effective management of the natural resources in the basin. There has however, been a lack of communication among the stakeholders, to the effect that several stakeholders appear not to be aware of the progress of some very important initiative. For instance questions were raised concerning the extent of consultation undertaken and the amount of grass-root participation in the FAO facilitated development of the Draft Convention. Further, it appeared that the SIDA supported programme in the LMNN - Shire basin was not fully aware of the FAO facilitated process. There was therefore unanimous agreement that there was an urgent need to put into place an effective mechanism for co-ordination of NRM initiatives in the LMNN basin.

Agreements

The agreements reached with regards to co-ordination include the recommendations, that:

  • A request is to be made (by the WWF, from the meeting) to the Principal Secretary Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs to lead the process of facilitating improved co-ordination completing the convention and setting up the LMNN Commission. Secretariat and Technical Support to the initiative will be provided by WWF-SARPO.
  • In leading the process, the PS is likely to benefit from contacts with the SIDA supported Tripartite Task Force, the NOR Consult facilitated study on Hydro Electricity, DANIDA Wetlands presentation on Tanzania and Mozambique and the RAMSA Convention.
  • In leading the process, the PS will cause a work plan to be completed (facilitated by WWF-SARPO) and also work out a budget. The meeting suggested that the first meeting of the parties concerned might be held by the end of July 2003/early August 2003.

The meeting estimates that the process for completing the draft convention could very well lasts till the end of December 2003, and a budget of at least USD100,000 will be required. Further, the following were noted as sources of possible funds for the process. These and others are to be formally approached later:

  • The three Governments (Riparian States)
  • WWF-SARPO
  • SIDA (to be approached later)
  • DANIDA (through the MEET Programme?)
  • DIFID
  • SDC
  • WWF-UK

The following, among others are to be approached for Technical assistance:

  • Malawi Fisheries
  • WWF
  • FAO for expertise in Fisheries, Water and Legal matters; and
  • DANIDA

Closure

The meeting was declared officially closed by Mr Rumisha Chikambi, Manager of Marine Parks and Reserves, Tanzania.


1. BACKGROUND

Lake Malawi-Niassa-Nyasa falls within the territories of Malawi (Lake Malawi), Mozambique (Lake Niassa) and Tanzania (Lake Nyasa). Lake MNN Ecoregion covers about 130 000 square kilometers and comprises the lake itself plus its drainage basin which includes Lake Malombe lying to the south.

Lake MNN is the most biologically valuable lake in the African Great Lakes area, and is regarded as the most biologically important lake in the world. Lake MNN is particularly important for its concentrations of endemic fish species and especially its cichlid species radiation. The lake ecosystem has been ranked among the priority freshwater areas because it probably carries more species of fish than any other lake in the world and accommodates 14% of the world's freshwater species, 99% of which are endemic. At the higher estimations, this would mean that this lake of about 29,000 km2 holds more freshwater fish species than all of the freshwaters of North America and Canada combined (790 species described to date). The lake has been identified by WWF as a priority freshwater area under its Ecoregion Conservation Programme.

The lake basin and its biodiversity are the products of millions years of evolution. During that time, a huge array of complex, interrelated physical and biological processes developed to sustain the system and its diversity. The species in the lake and especially the endemic fish are vulnerable to habitat change as they are specialists with small populations and a narrow distributional range. The loss in fish biodiversity will ultimately affect the source of livelihoods of the lakeshore communities.

About 38% of the lake basin are covered by forests of which 3.5% particularly in Malawi is annually deforested by clearing forests for agriculture and fuel-wood. As a result, an estimated 16 to 29 tonnes per hectare per year of soil in the catchment is lost and deposited into the lake due to erosion. The riverine deposition and the associated nutrient fluxes, changes in algae, light and habitat contraction may ultimately impact on the liminological processes and hence the lake's biodiversity. It is yet to be established through monitoring activities whether or not the apparent decline in fishery resources is linked to over-fishing or changes in habitats and liminological processes. As the impacts on the lake are a result of human activities from the three riparian states, it is therefore essential that some form of collaborative transboundary management of the common resources is developed and implemented as a matter of urgency.

The WWF's Southern Africa Regional Programme Office (WWF-SARPO) has been working in the area since 1998. The main focus of its initial work has been to consult with government and local stakeholders in order to identify threats to the lake and opportunities to develop a regional Conservation Master Plan to reach an agreement on the collaborative mechanism to implement such a plan. This Conservation Master plan aims to identify focal areas for conservation and of the lake's biodiversity and to determine and address the socio-economic factors that provide threats and opportunities for the conservation of the lake and its catchments in the long term. In this respect a long term vision for the lake was defined as:

  • a clean, healthy and living lake where resources are being used in ways that improve and support human well being without reducing the natural capital of the system;
  • catchment and atmospheric inputs to the lake are known and are not compromising its health;
  • the functional integrity and evolutionary capacity of the lake ecosystem is being maintained;
  • the full range of biological diversity is being maintained;

There are socio-economic factors in each of the three riparian countries that are influencing the rate and manner of resource use of the LMNN basin. The level of dependence of most rural population on agriculture which is often plagued by droughts, has placed considerable pressure on natural resources as alternative sources of livelihoods. In recognition of environmental conservation's key role in sustainable economic development, all three countries have adopted similar over-arching environmental policies particularly the decentralization of the management of natural resources to local communities. However, although the policies and legal frameworks are in place, the institutional capacity to implement these policies is weak.

There has been a lot of effort made by different donors and NGOs to address the conservation issues associated with the Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa and its basin with efforts directed towards addressing socio-economic needs and biodiversity conservation. However, there has not been a co-ordinated approach or common vision by the different donors and their partners in the way project activities have been implemented over the years. In consultation with the different donors and their partners the need for collaboration has increasingly become apparent hence the need to convene the proposed meeting.


2. OBJECTIVES OF THE MEETING

The objectives of the meeting were as follows:

  • To review ongoing activities and donor/partner interests
  • To identify and agree (for the further development of the programme) on scope, deliverables/outputs and required resources.
  • To propose co-ordination mechanisms, and
  • To consider the way forward (workout a summary/overall action plan with time line)

3. STRUCTURE METHODOLOGY OF THE MEETING

The proceedings of the meeting were split into two main sections:

  • Plenary presentation reporting on various programmes and activities in the LMNN basin, followed by discussion of the points raised in the presentations [presentations]; and
  • Brainstorming and discussions to identify and agree on the way forward [further developments].

The meeting was conducted with the help of the usual visual aids - Electronic Data Projector (with Power point), overhead projector with transparencies, and flip charts. The discussions were guided by a Moderator/Facilitator. Contributions were captured on flip charts. In addition, the presenters submitted electronic versions of their presentations to WWF-SARPO. These later formed the basis of this report.

  • The atmosphere of the meeting was distinctly business-like and mutually supportive with the participants expressing their views frankly.

The meeting was facilitated by Professor Alaphia Wright, Dean of Faculty of Engineering, University of Zimbabwe.


4. OPENING PRESENTATIONS

4.1 Welcome
Mr Jonas Chafota the LMNN-ER Conservation Programme coordinator from WWF-SARPO, the conveners of the meeting briefly welcome all the participants to the meeting. He expressed WWF-SARPO's appreciation to the participants for taking time-off their busy schedules to attend the meeting. He offered particular gratitude to the DIG's and RAMSAR for providing funding which has enabled WWF-SARPO to hold the meeting.

4.2 Opening Speech
The meeting was officially opened by Mr George Mkondiwa, PS, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs, Malawi. Mr Mkondiwa welcomed all the participants to the meeting, and extended a special welcome to those participants from outside Malawi. He reminded the participants that some 1.6 million people from three riparian states; Malawi, Tanzania and Mozambique rely on Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa fisheries resources as a major source of income and livelihood. And, apart from providing habitat for fish, the lake system and its rivers provide water for domestic use, livestock, agriculture, hydropower generation and opportunities for transport and tourism development. He noted that despite all these services, the ecological balance of the lake is in jeopardy due to unsustainable management and utilisation of its natural resources. He commended the WWF Ecoregion approach which intends to harmonise donor's disjointed approaches that have resulted in duplication of efforts and waste of limited human and financial resources in the implementation of programmes on Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa Ecoregion.

He recognised the WWR-SARPO initiative for coming up with the idea of convening an international meeting to discuss and map out a common approach on the conservation of the Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa and its catchment resources. He concluded by wishing all the participants a successful meeting. The full text of the PS' speech is given as Annex A.


5. BACKGROUND PRESENTATIONS

5.1 WWF-SARPO

Mr Jonas Chafota gave an overview of the LMNN-ER Conservation programme. He noted that the programme started in 1998, and to date several activities have been completed, including:

  • Biophysical reconnaissance study
  • Social economic reconnaissance study
  • National stakeholders' consultation meetings
  • Identification of areas critical for programme introduction and implementation
  • Definition of a framework for Trilateral Conservation plan
  • Definition of a framework for Trilateral co-ordination
  • Proposals for RAMSA designation, and
  • Pilot project for the improvement of livelihoods.

The full text of the presentation is given in Annex B.

5.2 Challenges for the Conservation of the LMNN Ecoregion

This presentation was by Mr Alex Bulirani, of the Department of Natural Resources, Malawi. He highlighted the overall study in the basin, and noted that several challenges have been identified, including:

  • Habitat degradation
  • Lack of education of the basin inhabitants
  • Lack of capacity, and
  • Lack of decision making

The various socio-economic indicators including GDP per capita and life expectancy of the people living in the basin were presented. The full text of the presentation is given in Annex C.

5.3 WWF Living Waters Programme

This presentation was by Mr Denis Lendenbergue of WWF International, Switzerland. He reported that the programme started in May 1999, and has three main focus:

  • Conservation/sustainable management of international river basins
  • Co-operation with private sector for efficient water use, and
  • Communication of the designation, identification and mapping of wetlands of international importance.

In particular, he made special mention of the Lake Chad Basin Commission - involving the five states: Niger, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon and the Central Africa Republic. He said that some of the experiences and lessons learnt with the Lake Chad Basin Commission could very well be useful to a proposed LMNN Basin Commission.

Mr. Landenburgue presented the Guiding operational Principles for the implementation of the Ecosystem Approach from a policy paper jointly developed by Ramsar, Swiss Development Cooperation and WWF. The ecosystem approach is the conservation and the sustainable use of ecosystems such as wetlands, forests and sustainably managed soils, which capture, filter, store and distribute water.

The guiding principles are as follows:

  • Taking into consideration the protection of ecosystems through conservation and sustainable land-use for any project/investment in the field of water resources.
  • Basing any action on this ecosystem approach, the framework of which might be transboundary depending upon the type of river/lake basin concerned.
  • Focusing on a holistic and multidisciplinary (inter-ministerial) approach within or between countries while favoring decentralization for local ownership, implemented through a national water agency or a transboundary river/lake basin organization.
  • Using a two-fold approach that 1) works with a selected group of existing 'international basin organization' and 2) supports the establishment of new 'International Basin Organization'. Lessons learned from existing basin organizations may be applied or used as models for the latter.
  • Focusing on forests and wetlands, considering as a priority Ramsar sites (sustainable management and/or designation) and associated ecosystems, as a basis for deciding on allocation of support and resources on a river/lake basin scale.
  • Providing regular information exchanges and progress reports - if possible back to back with other related meetings such as Ramsar COPs, Biodiversity Convention COPs, World Water For a, etc. - including representatives of international basin organization (both existing and coming into being).
  • Maximizing opportunities for public awareness, participation in decision-making and outreach through communication strategies to achieve the goal of the partnership.

5.4 Ramsar Convention

Mr Tiega Anada, Executive Secretary of the Ramsar Convention informed the meeting that the convention came into being in 1971 and is fundamentally operational on the basis of three major pillars:

  • sustainable/wise use of wetlands
  • designation of RAMSA sites; and
  • International co-operations.

He noted that LMNN in fact fulfill all eight criteria to be satisfied for designation as a RAMSA site. The full text of the presentation is given in Annex D.

5.5 DANIDA (Malawi)

Mr John Balarin presented the development and achievements of the Danida Support programme to the Malawi Decentralised Management of Natural Resources Programme. He noted that a cornerstone of Danida's Support have been the increased stakeholders participation at the grass-root/local levels. He mentioned that by the time of phasing out Danida's support to Malawi's several manuals for the training and capacity building of natural resources management officials, school teachers and local committees have been developed and produced.

In addition, Danida had been involved in curriculum development in several technical colleges. The full text of the presentation is given in Annex E.

5.6 FAO

Mr Ernest Makawa sketched FAO's involvement in efforts aimed at drafting a Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa Basin Convention. He mentioned that the drafting process was based on an overall consultative and participating approach covering several studies and consultative meetings held in Makokola and Maputo. Professionals involved included Technical experts and Government officials from Malawi, Tanzania and Mozambique and also Permanent Secretaries from these countries. A draft convention document has been completed to a point at which FAO funding ran out. Only one major issue concerning the draft had not been finalised. This concerned the question as to whether the area of application of the lake and its basin should also include water flowing out of the lake. Efforts are currently underway to solicit funds to complete the process, and FAO is still willing to contribute some technical and legal expertise, but no funds.

The draft convention is found in Annex F.

5.7 SIDA

This presentation was by Mr Thomas Andersson of SIDA. His presentation highlighted overall aspects guiding SIDA's involvement in water management in the region. The first was that SIDA bases its work and support from the starting point of Intergrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) on a Basin-wide scale. SIDA (together with DANIDA and NORAD) are giving support to the development of a Zambezi commission and a strategic management plan of the Zambezi basin. In this context LMNN and Shire is considered as a sub-basin to Zambezi. However, SIDA are also facilitating a process to create a sub-basin commission for LMNN. With the foregoing consideration LMNN is considered a 'sub-basin' by SIDA. SIDA has supported a programme working on the development of a sub-basin commission for LMNN. The process is being implemented by a Tri-partite Task Force (TTF). A fundamental question raised was whether both the FAO facilitated process and the SIDA supported initiative did not constitute parallel processes aiming at the same goal of effective co-ordination in the management of LMNN basin?

Mr Andersson made a report on the ZACPLAN and the potential to create a Zambezi Basin Commission . The ZAMBEZI ACTION PLAN (ZACPLAN) is a SADC initiative and is the major government-level instrument intended to create structures and strategies for the integrated management of the Zambezi Basin. ZACPLAN is currently attempting to create the Zambezi Basin Commission (ZAMCOM) in an effort to generate a collaborative institution for the management of water - and to some extent other - issues across the Zambezi basin.

ZACPLAN has its roots in United Nations General Assembly resolution 299/(XXVII) of December 15 1972, which established the Untied Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). UNEP subsequently launched EMINWA, a programme intended to promote the environmentally sound management of inland water, of which a major sub-programme focused on African inland waters. Following requests from the governments of Zambezi Basin states, it was decided that the first element of the sub-programme should concentrate on the common Zambezi River system, and a Working Group

5.8 US State Department

The presentation was by Mr Mario from the US Regional Environment and Health Office, Southern Africa, Based in Gaborone Botswana. He informed the meeting that the office mostly supports initiatives of a trans-boundary nature. They are currently supporting a programme in the Okavambo delta. Earlier initiatives included training courses on invasive species and wildlife enforcement for regional participants.

5.9 WWF - Tanzania Program Office

Mr Hermann Mwangeni of WWF-Tanzania, reported on DANIDA's planned support in the region. This include DKK 35 million (USD5 million) of which DKK 10 million remain unallocated and with a high potential that these funds may be used for wetland management. There is a possibility that WWF-UK/DFID may provide support transboundary initiatives including LMNN basin in 2004.


6. DISCUSSIONS

6.1 General

The discussions following the individual presentations were mostly to do with matters of clarity to issues which were handled to the satisfaction of the meeting. For instance one participants wanted to know whether the Ramsar Convention was not in effect dealing only with some endangered bird species. It was clarified that the convention deals with wetlands in its broadest sense covering lakes, rivers and deltas.

An important overall realisation from the discussion was that the various initiatives, projects and programmes operational in the LMNN basin were clearly complementary and supportive of effective management of the natural resources in the basin. There has however, been a lack of communication among the stakeholders, to the effect that several stakeholders appear not to be aware of the progress of some very important initiatives. For instance questions were raised concerning the extent of consultation undertaken and from grass root participation in the FAO facilitated development of the Draft Convention.

Further, it appeared that the SIDA supported programme in the LMNN - Shire basin was not fully aware of the FAO facilitated process. It was therefore agreed that there was an urgent need to put into place an effective mechanism for co-ordination of NRM initiatives in the LMNN basin. The agreements reached with regards to co-ordination are given in a later section of this report.

6.2 Discussion methodology

The methodology adopted in the overall discussion consisted of identifying issues characterising the "unsatisfactory" situation associated with the LMNN basin and the management of the natural resources in the same. Therefore, the issues identified were discussed and several initiatives and actions deemed to have potentials in converting the recognised unsatisfactory situation to a satisfactory situation were proposed and discussed.

6.3 Unsatisfactory situation

The following unsatisfactory aspects/issues were captured from the discussion:

a) Co-ordination mechanisms for the sustainable management of the LMNN basin are not yet in place and/or are not yet fully functional.

b) Clarifications/expectations from the riparian states concerning the management of LMNN basin are not fully disseminated (implying a low level of communication). The effect of this is that different stakeholders have different understanding of issues to do with the sustainable management of the basin.

c) There is clearly incomplete understanding of the biophysical and other basin processes of importance - for instance water flow quantities into and out of the lake, performance of monitoring stations, and flow of effluent into the lake.

d) Where to with LMNN? - since a master plan for the management of the basin is absent.

e) There is an overall tendency for different sectors (Fisheries, water, agriculture/land, utilities/power, industry, transport, tourism) to promote their own individual issues without reference to other sectors.

f) The institutional anchorage or LMNN-ER is not clear. It was later explained that the focal points in the riparian states are the Ministries and related departments responsible for the fisheries function.

g) Political will not yet fully translated into complete financing and action.

h) Some delegates to some of the consultative meetings might not have had the necessary mandate or authority from their home institutions to make or give commitments. Also, several of the consultative meetings had poor representation from the various sectors.

i) There is a weak or there is an absence of local level basin-wide institutional arrangements.

j) The relationships between ZAC PLAN sub-basin programme and LMNN-ER not yet clear.

k) Stakeholders have still to agree on a common definition and understanding for the management approach applicable for managing the natural resources of the basin. Terms currently being used include Ecoregion, Strategic Environmental Assessment and Ecological Footprint.

l) Linkages and the procedures and practices for wise use/sustainable use, as is possible under the Ramsar Convention still needs to be clarified.

m) Clarifications on the interests, positions and commitment of donors still has to take place.

n) Clarifications on the interests, positions and commitment of NGOs still has to take place.

o) Some user groups (CBNRM) are breaking the law and some enforcement agencies are not enforcing the law in some countries. At the same time some user groups complain about harassment by politicians. Such groups usually lack opportunities for alternative livelihoods. Further, the law enforcement agencies lack the necessary capacity.

p) Donors are getting mixed/confusing messages/requests from stakeholders in the riparian states.

q) Field level projects focussing on decentralization aspects - with transboundary implications still need to be initiated.

r) A comprehensive and well supported stakeholder forum where the various stakeholders (user groups, officials, NGOs) can meet to discuss issues pertaining to the management of the basin is absent.

6.4 Satisfactory situations

Several satisfactory aspects were highlighted in the discussions:

a) It was noted that focal points for the LMNN-ER Programme are already in place. In fact, the Malawi focal point (the Departmental of Fisheries) is particularly active and supportive of the programme as is evidenced by the support provided for the present meeting.

b) With regards to the procedures necessary for getting the proposed Basin Convention adopted the meeting was informed that procedures already practiced within SADC will apply. These include local levels and NGOs agreement and support at the start. Technical aspects will be handled by relevant Technical Committees, and Government Officials will have to vet the drafts, before making recommendations to their respective Ministers. The final stage will then be that of approval by the Conference of Ministers.

6.5 Draft LMNN Basin Convention

The FAO Consultant was given the opportunity to take the meeting through the Draft Convention. Copies of the draft were distributed to participants. The meeting made several suggestions of (additional) details to be considered, including:

a) Reference to CITES, NEPAD and relevant sub-regional initiatives should be included.

b) The relationships between committees working on the draft must be clarified with the operations of existing SADC Committees.

c) It must be ensured that 'ownership' of the draft rests squarely with the riparian states.

d) Full account must be taken of existing SADC treaties and protocols, such as the SADC Protocol on Shared Water Courses.

e) The question of the depository must be cleared.

f) The views of all the relevant sectors: fisheries water, energy, transport, agriculture, wildlife tourism, etc. should be taken into account.

g) The draft should have the 'blessings' of the three Ministers (one from each of the riparian states).

h) The FAO facilitated process for producing the draft convention is to be 'co-ordinated' with the work of the SIDA-supported Tri-partite Task Force, and in effect the apparent parallel processes should be consolidated.

i) Governments of the Riparian States are committed to complete the convention, provided the necessary resources (funds and technical expertise) are available.

j) It must be ensured that all stakeholders (including user groups) are aware of the process of drafting the Convention and that they fully participate in the process.

k) It was agreed that the Convention must be completed as soon as possible, as it would provide the base for the necessary co-ordination mechanism for the sustainable management of the LMNN Basin.

l) Experiences from the setting-up and operation of the Lake Chad Basin Commission should be taken into account where necessary.

m) Support for completing the Convention and setting up the LMNN Basin Commission must be solicited from the 3 governments (possibly at head of state level).

6.6 Targets/Outputs

As a starting point for the co-ordination mechanism, the following were discussed and recommended:

a) A request is to be made (by the WWF, from the meeting) to the Principal Secretary Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs to lead the process of facilitating improved co-ordination completing the convention and setting up the LMNN Commission. Secretariat and Technical Support to the initiative will be provided by WWF-SARPO.

b) In leading the process, the PS is likely to benefit from contacts with the SIDA supported Tripartite Task Force, the NOR Consult facilitated study on Hydro Electricity, DANIDA Wetlands presentation on Tanzania and Mozambique and the Ramsar Convention.

c) Further, the points raised under in sections above should be taken into account in the proposed process.

d) In leading the process, the PS will cause a work plan to be completed (facilitated by WWF-SARPO) and also work out a budget. The meeting suggested that the first meeting of the parties concerned might be held by the end of July 2003/early August 2003.

e) The meeting estimates that the process for completing the draft convention could very well lasts till the end of December 2003, and a budget of at least USD100,000 will be required.

6.7 Sources of Funds

The following were noted as sources of possible funds for the process. These and others are to be formally approached later:

  • The three Governments (Riparian States)
  • WWF-SARPO
  • SIDA (to be approached later)
  • DANIDA (through the MEET Programme?)
  • DIFID
  • SDC
  • WWF-UK

6.8 Sources of Technical Assistance

The following, among others are to be approached for Technical assistance:

  • Malawi Fisheries
  • WWF
  • FAO for expertise in Fisheries, Water and Legal matters; and
  • DANIDA

7. CLOSURE

7.1 Closing Speech

Mr Rumisha Chikambi from Tanzania (Manager, Marine Parks and Reserves) gave a short closing speech. He started by thanking all the participants for a very successful meeting. He noted that very clear decisions have been taken including that of requesting the PS of Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs of Malawi to lead a process to complete the LMNN Convention. He expressed satisfaction at the frankness of the discussions. He hoped that an agreement would be reached soon with the partners and donors, so that the Convention can be completed and the LMNN Basin Commission set up. He ended by paying tribute to WWF-SARPO for taking the initiative for organising the meeting. He wished all the participants safe travels back to their respective homes.



Annex G: List of Participants

Name

Organization

Position

Telephone

E-Mail

1.     

Anderson Thomas SIDA
Embassy of Sweden
P O Box 4110 Harare
Zimbabwe
Program Officer Regional Water Resources +263 4 790651
Fax: +263 4 754265
+263 91 365379
Tomas.andersson-ZIM@sida.se

2.     

Balarin John DANIDA
Private Bag 396 Lilongwe Malawi
CTA +8836533
+265 1 794714
DESPS@malawi.net

3.     

Banda Gracian Centre for Environmental Policy and Advocacy
P O Box 5062 Limbe
Malawi
Environmental Law and Policy Specialist +640353
+640592
cepa@globemw.net

4.     

Chafota, Jonas WWF – SARPO
10 Lanark Road,  Belgravia Harare Zimbabwe
Program Officer   +263 4 252533/4
+265 11 213921
Jchafota@wwf.org.zw

5.     

Chimatiro Sloans Fisheries Department,
P O Box 593
Lilongwe
  Malawi
Director of Fisheries +265 1 788 271/788070 Chimatiro@sdnp.org.mw

6.     

Chikambi Rumisha Marine Parks and Reserves, P O Box 7565 Dar –e salaam  Tanzania Manager +255 22 2150621
fax: +255 222150420
Marineparks@raha.com

7.     

Halafo Jose IIP- Fisheries Department,
P O Box 4603, Maputo,  Mozambique
Head of Metangule Research Station +258 1 490307
Fax: 258 1 492112
Halafo@hotmail.com or jhalafo@yahoo.com

8.     

Landenbergue Denis WWF International
Avenue du Brt-Glare CH1196/Gland
Switzerland
Manager, Wetlands Conservation +41 22 364 9029
Fax: 41 22 364 0526
dlandenbergue@wwfint.org

9.     

Makawa Ernest FAO
C/O Box 30315
Lilongwe 3
Malawi
Legal Consultant +265 1 773255/8850437 Emakawa@yahoo.com

10.  

Bulirani Alexander Department of Fisheries
P O Box 593 Lilongwe
Malawi
Deputy Director +265 1 788094
Fax: 265 1 788712
Bulirani@sdnp.org.mw

11.  

Mwanyongo Mpeta Environmental Affairs Department
Private Bag 394
Lilongwe 3,
Malawi
Assistant Director +265 1 771111
Fax: 265 1 773 379
 

12.  

Jiah Ramosh Department of National Parks and Wildlife
P O Box 30131
Lilongwe 3
Malawi
Deputy Director +265 8834220 Sadc.wstcu@malawi.net

13.  

Merida Mario US Embassy
P O Box 90
Gaborone
Botswana
Regional Environment and Health Officer +267 395 3982
ext 5257
 Meridame@state.gov

14.  

Lord Peter US Department of State
P O Box 30016 Malawi
Political/Economic Officer +265 1 773 166
Fax: 265 1 772 315
LORDPW@state.gov

15.  

Mkondiwa, George Ministry of Natural Res & Env. Affairs
P/Bag 350
Lilongwe 3
 Malawi
Principal Secretary +265 1 789488
Fax: 265 1 788689
Gmkondiwa@malawi.net

16.  

Mwalyosi Raphael  Prof Institute of Resource Assessment
P O Box 35097 Dar es Salaam
Tanzania
Research Professor +255 22 2410144
+255 22 2410393
Sanmumwal@hotmail.com

17.  

Mwangeni Hermann Dr WWF-TPO
P O Box 63117 Dar-es-salaam
Tanzania
Country Representative +255 22 2701675
Fax: +255 22 2775535
Hmwageni@wwftz.org

18.  

Powell Neil Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)
SE-10525 Stockholm
Sweden
Senior Programme Officer +46 8 698 5316
Fax: +46 8 698 5653
Neil.powell@sida.se

19.  

Ssentongo George W FAO of the United Nations Sub-Regional Office for Southern and East Africa Fisheries Officer +263 4 791407/253655 George.Ssentongo@fao.org

20.  

Gondwe Tenneson WWF Malawi Office
Fisheries Department
Malawi
Project Coordinator +265 1 788511  

21.  

Anada Tiega Ramsar Convention
28 Rue Mauveney CH 1196 Gland Switzerland
Regional Coordinator for Africa +41 22 9990164
fax: +41 22999 0169
Tiega@ramsar.org

22.  

Tegner Anna

Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)
SE-10525 Stockholm
Sweden
Programme Administrator +46 8 698 5387 anna.tegner@sida.se

23.  

Wright Alaphia Prof. University of Zimbabwe
P O Box MP 167
Mt. Pleasant, Harare
Zimbabwe
Dean of Engineering +263 4 303 211
Fax: +263 4 303 280
alwright@africaonline.co.zw

 

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