Ramsar COP7 DOC. 10

23/03/1999

COP7's logo"People and Wetlands: The Vital Link"
7th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties
to the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971),
San José, Costa Rica, 10-18 May 1999

 Ramsar COP7 DOC. 10

Agenda item X

Regional overview of implementation of the Convention and its Strategic Plan 1997-2002 in Western Europe

The National Reports upon which this overview is based can be consulted on the Ramsar Web site, http://ramsar.org/caxref:1359

Contracting Parties in Western Europe: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg , Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and United Kingdom

Contracting Parties yet to submit National Reports: Luxembourg. The Convention only entered into force for Luxembourg on 15 August 1998, and a comprehensive national report was not anticipated.


§I. Major achievements since COP6 and priorities for the next triennium

The following have been prepared based on the advice provided by the National Reports submitted for COP7 as summarised in Sections II and III.

A. Main achievements since COP6

The COP7 National Reports indicate that, during the 1997-1999 triennium, there has been significant effort within the Western European region under the following areas, with more than half of the Contracting Parties reporting positive developments:

A1. Wetland conservation and sustainable use is widely incorporated within broad environmental and nature conservation policy frameworks, such as National Biodiversity Strategies/Action Plans.

A2. Almost all Contracting Parties in the region have legislation requiring Environmental Impact Assessments to be carried out for certain actions potentially impacting on wetlands.

A3. Wetland restoration and rehabilitation projects are being carried out by most Contracting Parties, and are the central component of national wetland conservation efforts for some countries.

A4. Encouragement of participation by local stakeholders is being actively pursued, especially in terms of building closer links between land owners/occupiers/users and protected area managers (for EU Member States, in particular, in the framework of ‘Natura 2000’).

A5. The Contracting Parties report a wide range of education and public awareness initiatives for wetlands, with many being NGO-led, rather than government-led, programmes.

A6. Establishment of mechanisms for enhancing cooperation between institutions responsible for wetland management.

A7. 50% of Contracting Parties have designated Ramsar sites in transboundary locations, and a similar number of countries are involved in active international twinning of Ramsar sites.

A8. The majority of Contracting Parties are actively involved in bilateral or multilateral cooperation in favour of migratory wetland species, notably through the African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement under the Bonn Convention, and under the Bern Convention.

A9. Efforts are being made to ensure coordination at a national level with other environment-related conventions and to improve coordination between institutions playing an important role in wetland conservation.

A10. The region has demonstrated a strong commitment to payment in full of annual contributions to the Ramsar core budget, and provided many additional voluntary contributions to facilitate project work.

B. Priorities for the next triennium

Comparison of the National Reports with the Strategic Plan suggests the following priorities for the 2000-2002 triennium. These are areas of the Strategic Plan, where the COP7 National Reports indicate relatively low levels of activity for the Western European region during the 1997-1999 triennium.

B1. Promote development and implementation of discrete National Wetland Policies (recognising that these may be components of wider strategic and policy documents), and review of legislation impacting wetlands.

B.2 Step up actions to address the impact of toxic chemicals and pollution on wetlands, especially in relation to heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and pollution from diffuse sources, such as agricultural runoff.

B3. Undertake economic valuations of wetland functions and benefits for specific wetland types and specific wetland sites.

B4. Increase efforts to involve the private sector, and in particular, the business/corporate sector, in conservation and wise use of wetlands.

B5. Make greater efforts to include wetland conservation and wise use issues in formal educational curricula.

B6. Review wetland-related training needs, opportunities and development of training programmes.

B7. Strengthen the resources for development, implementation and monitoring of management plans for Ramsar sites.

B8. Ensure availability of up-to-date information on wetland distribution, functions, values and conservation status through enhanced wetland inventory efforts, including cooperation at Pan-European level.

B9. Increase efforts to designate examples of under-represented wetland types for the Ramsar List, notably peatlands, karst wetlands, sea-grass beds (and priority tropical wetland types for Contracting Parties with overseas/dependent territories).

B10. Promote formal consultation between development assistance agencies and Ramsar Administrative Authorities, including earmarking of development assistance funds for wetland conservation and wise use in other countries.

B11. Establish a greater number of National Ramsar Committees or equivalent structures.

Other areas of the Strategic Plan show no clear regional trend, with some Contracting Parties reporting significant achievements, and others indicating that no activities have been carried out. This no doubt reflects the variations in, for example, extent of national territory, extent of anthropogenic impacts on wetlands, environmental priorities, and socio-economic priorities. It should also be noted that 15 of the Contracting Parties are Member States of the European Union, and are therefore working within a common framework for many environment-related activities.


§II. Description of activities undertaken

Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 1
To progress towards universal membership of the Convention.

1. Within the Ramsar Western European Region, there are currently 22 Contracting Parties as shown on the first page of this overview. Luxembourg and Monaco have joined the Convention since COP6. With the adhesion of Luxembourg, all Member States of the European Union are now Contracting Parties. Four States in the region are not yet Contracting Parties, namely Andorra, Cyprus, Holy See, and San Marino. Of these, Andorra, Holy See and San Marino are perhaps unlikely to join the Convention; not least because of the prerequisite for designating at least one Wetland of International Importance for the Ramsar List. Nevertheless, these States all receive regular Diplomatic Notifications from the Convention. In the case of Cyprus, the Bureau has been in regular contact with the relevant authorities, and a Cypriot delegate attended the 1998 Pan-European Regional Meeting (see below). Significant steps have been taken towards adhesion, and it is anticipated that Cyprus will become a Contracting Party in the near future.

2. The Pan-European Regional Meeting (mentioned above) was hosted by the Latvian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development, and held in Riga in June 1998. It was the third such meeting of the Convention (after Lelystad, The Netherlands in 1992, and Varna, Bulgaria in 1995). All except six Contracting Parties from Western Europe attended, thanks largely to generous financial support from Western European Contracting Parties (Austria, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and UK) together with financial and logistical support from the Latvian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development. The meeting was very successful, providing excellent networking opportunities and producing concrete conclusions and recommendations dealing with four main topics: transboundary cooperation, national and regional wetland policies, the role of restoration and rehabilitation in managing European wetlands, and building financial and technical capacity for wetland conservation and wise use. These conclusions, together with copies of the technical papers on which discussions were based, are available from the Ramsar Bureau.

Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 2
To achieve the wise use of wetlands by implementing and further developing the Ramsar Wise Use Guidelines
.

National Wetland Policies/Strategies and their implementation

3. During 1998/99, the Ramsar Bureau, in close consultation with the Administrative Authority for each Contracting Party, has carried out a major review of wetland policy development and implementation in both Eastern and Western Europe. For Western Europe, a number of the principal conclusions are summarised below.

4. Only three countries in the region (France, Spain, United Kingdom) have drawn up strategic or policy instruments related specifically to wetlands. However, a further six Contracting Parties (Austria, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Turkey) are either in the process of developing such instruments, or plan to begin developing them in the near future. It is notable that two-thirds of the above-named Contracting Parties are from the Mediterranean region, and that this may reflect work undertaken by the Mediterranean Wetlands initiative ‘MedWet’, notably development of the Mediterranean Wetlands Strategy, based on the Ramsar Strategic Plan.

5. More than 50% of all Western European Contracting Parties do not have any strategic or policy instrument dealing specifically with wetlands, and do not indicate their intention of developing such an instrument. However, all Contracting Parties have multiple legal and administrative instruments which deal in part with wetlands, or are otherwise relevant to wetland conservation and wise use efforts. In most cases, wetlands are considered to be an integral part of other national strategic and policy instruments, notably National Biodiversity Strategies/Action Plans.

6. The situation in each Contracting Party (as provided to the Ramsar Bureau during the above-mentioned review, or in the National Reports for COP7) is as follows (note: this is a summary of strategic and policy instruments related to wetlands, and not a complete listing of other instruments such as laws or regulations. For further details, see the relevant National Report, available through the Bureau’s Web site at www.ramsar.org):

7. Austria: a National Wetlands Strategy is currently in preparation. It will take into account the autonomous status of the nine Länder (Provinces) with regard to nature conservation, and will be integrated into the National Environment Action Plan and National Biodiversity Strategy.

Belgium: there is no overall strategic/policy instrument relating specifically to wetlands, although the Flemish Region has a Nature Policy Plan, which refers to wetlands. The Brussels, Flemish, and Walloon Regions all have a variety of legal instruments relevant to wetland conservation.

Denmark: there is no overall strategic/policy instrument for wetlands. However, the National Biodiversity Strategy includes the goal of restoring 30,000 ha of freshwater wetlands and 8,000 ha of saltmarshes within 30 years. The Action Plan for Improvement of the Aquatic Environment II is another key instrument, with a major restoration component, aimed mainly at reducing discharges of nutrients into the aquatic environment.

Finland: the National Action Plan 1997-2005 for Biological Diversity in Finland includes a section on wetlands.

France: an Action Plan for Wetlands, approved by the Council of Ministers, and hence involving the whole Government, has been in force since March 1995. Its four main actions are inventory, coordination of sectoral policies, promotion of ‘on the ground’ conservation management, and launching of an information/awareness programme.

Germany: the Basic Policy Programme provides the framework for the nature conservation responsibilities of the Federal and Länder (Provincial) Governments, and identifies wetlands as a priority. The German Ramsar Committee has recently initiated discussion of a possible strategy for Germany’s implementation of the Ramsar Strategic Plan.

Greece: at the present time, there is no overall national strategy/policy dealing specifically with wetlands. However, a National Strategy for Wetland Resources 2000-2005 is being developed and will be integrated with the National Biodiversity Strategy.

Iceland: although there is no national wetland policy as such, the Sustainable Development Action Plan and the Ministry of Environment’s 1996-1999 Action Plan emphasise wetland protection and restoration.

Ireland: there is no specific wetland strategy/policy. However, the National Sustainable Development Strategy includes actions concerning peat resource management, catchment-based water resource management, coastal zone management, and nature conservation through direct habitat protection.

Italy: there is no specific wetland strategy/policy at present. However, a National Strategic Plan for Wetlands is at the planning stage and will be integrated with the National Strategic Plan for Protected Areas and with the National Biodiversity Action Plan.

Liechtenstein: the Act on Nature and Landscape Protection provides for the conservation of the limited area of wetlands in this small country. An Act on Water Management is in preparation.

Luxembourg: a National Plan for Sustainable Development is in preparation and a number of legal instruments are of relevance for wetland conservation.

Malta: a Biodiversity Strategy is in preparation and will refer to Malta’s two Ramsar sites (and only wetlands). These sites also fall within the zone of Malta’s Structure Plan where no development is permitted.

Monaco: the relevant national laws of this small country focus on water pollution.

Netherlands: the current policy on wetland protection is an integral part of the 1990 National Nature Policy Plan. This is soon to be replaced by a new, Integrated Policy Plan which will give direction to many aspects of national development policy. It is not intended to produce a specific national policy on wetlands. Wetland creation, restoration and rehabilitation is a key priority.

Norway: there is no national wetland policy/strategy dealing specifically with wetlands. Instead, wetlands are part of the National Biodiversity Strategy, which focuses on integration of policy sectors. A National Biodiversity Action Plan is to be developed.

Portugal: a wetland strategy, based on the Mediterranean Wetland Strategy (in turn derived from the format of the Ramsar Strategic Plan) is currently being developed by the Ramsar Administrative Authority for 1999-2003. It is envisaged that this should eventually develop into a wider National Strategy for Wetlands Conservation.

Spain: within the framework of the Spanish Strategy for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity, one of the key actions has been the development of a ‘Strategic Plan for the Conservation and Wise Use of Wetlands’. This has been developed through the Spanish Wetlands Committee, with the full involvement of the Autonomous Communities and the nature conservation and water sectors.

Sweden: there is no overall national wetland policy, but a National Mire Conservation Plan is being implemented, within the framework of the National Biodiversity Action Plan. In addition, there is a range of legal instruments for ensuring wetland conservation and wise use, notably the Nature Conservation Act.

Switzerland: wetland conservation policy is part of overall nature protection policy, whereby the Cantons (provinces) have responsibility for actual implementation within a policy framework set at Federal level. There are several specific legal instruments guiding wetland conservation activities.

Turkey: a National Wetland Policy, focusing on inter-sectoral coordination, is planned for development in the near future.

United Kingdom: national targets for UK implementation of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 1997-2002 have been developed by the National Ramsar Committee and endorsed by the Government. Activities to achieve the targets are currently being implemented. In addition, a wide range of other strategies, policies, plans and legal instruments are used to deliver objectives relating to the conservation and wise use of wetlands.

Reviews of legislation

8. Less than one-quarter of Contracting Parties (5) in the region indicate that they have carried out substantial reviews of legislation which may have impacts on wetlands. These include the three countries that have developed national wetland policies/strategies (or equivalents): France, Spain and the United Kingdom.

Integrated approaches to wetland management

9. Just over half (11/21) of the COP7 National Reports advise of progress with efforts to integrate wetlands within wider planning mechanisms for land use, water use, and/or coastal zone management. For example, in Belgium, cross-sectoral integrated water management bodies have been established for major river basins. France has also consolidated the catchment approach to water management, with wetlands considered as an integral factor by the relevant legislation. Germany makes reference to the important role of international water protection commissions for major transboundary lakes and rivers. Finland reports on the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Programme, a joint European Union initiative for the environment, fisheries and regional policy. In 1997, Ireland published ‘Managing Ireland’s Rivers & Lakes’, setting out a major catchment-based management initiative for the country’s largest river basin and five smaller catchments. The Netherlands states that the principles of integrated land/water and coastal zone planning "are becoming more and more integrated in all policy plans on national level but also on provincial and local level". The UK reports on a range of planning mechanisms of relevance to wetlands, but also points out that the national targets for the Ramsar Strategic Plan acknowledge the need for greater awareness of the Wise Use Guidelines amongst those responsible for local and regional planning. This conclusion would appear to be applicable to much of Western Europe. In spite of progress in some areas, the specific consideration of wetlands - and the full range of their functions and values - within broad planning instruments, remains patchy.

Wise use publications produced

10. Refer to paragraph 20, under General Objective 3, below.

Toxic chemicals and pollution

11. Many Contracting Parties report on efforts to improve water quality through upgraded sewage treatment, programmes to reduce fertilizer runoff (e.g., establishment of ‘nitrate vulnerable zones’ by European Union Member States), and action to tackle oil pollution. However, it is noticeable that none of the National Reports refer to heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants or endocrine-disrupting substances in wetlands, or measures taken in specific response to COP6 Recommendation 6.14 (Toxic Chemicals) or Action 2.3.1 of the Strategic Plan 1997-2002 (expansion of the Wise Use Guidelines in relation to oil pollution, agricultural runoff etc). Germany’s National Report provides an interesting overview of several international instruments aimed at reducing the transboundary impact of environmental pollutants. In Ireland, the Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a comprehensive review of discharges to waters, to assess impacts of nutrients and toxic substances. Spain and the UK refer to measures to reduce the impact of lead shot from hunting in wetlands.

Economic valuation techniques

12. Analysis of the COP7 National Reports indicates that about one-third of Contracting Parties in the region (6/21) have made at least some steps towards incorporating the economic valuation of wetlands into natural resource planning and assessment actions. However, of these, only three (Netherlands, Norway and the UK) suggest that this element of the Strategic Plan (Operational Objective 2.4) is the subject of wider actions. Thirteen Contracting Parties advised that such work has yet to be initiated. There was no response from one Contracting Party. This issue would appear to be a priority for progress in the 2000-2002 triennium.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIAs)

13. Almost all Contracting Parties in the region report that Environmental Impact Assessments are required under legislation for certain activities likely to have a significant effect on components of the natural environment, including wetlands. However, few National Reports advise on the extent to which EIA legislation specifically takes into account Ramsar sites, or the special characteristics of wetlands (e.g., in relation to catchment planning, or the cumulative impact of multiple small-scale developments on wetland functions and values). None of the reports indicates that special measures have been implemented in response to Operational Objective 2.5 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan (‘to carry out EIAs at wetlands’). Many reports focus on EIAs in relation to protected areas. This is particularly true of some European Union (EU) Member States, which emphasize their EIA responsibilities in relation to the sites designated for the EU protected area network known as ‘Natura 2000’ (many of these are also Ramsar sites). EU Member States are obliged to implement separate Directives which require the establishment and protection of Natura 2000 sites, and the undertaking of EIAs for certain developments. Certain of the Autonomous Communities of Spain (e.g., Andalucía, Cantabria, Castilla y León, Madrid, Murcia and Navarra) have legislation requiring EIAs for any proposed wetland drainage, etc. The Netherlands highlight the close connection between EIAs and development compensation/mitigation measures for wetlands.

Restoration and rehabilitation of wetlands

14. Eighty-five per cent (18/21) of the National Reports confirm that wetland restoration and rehabilitation activities are being undertaken. For two Contracting Parties, Denmark and The Netherlands, this is a principal focus of national wetland programmes. Both of these COP7 National Reports provide specific examples of restoration and rehabilitation projects and the policy/legislative frameworks which guide them (see also paragraph 7 under General Objective 2, ‘To achieve the wise use of wetlands by implementing and further developing the Ramsar Wise Use Guidelines’). Other Contracting Parties stress that, whilst their primary objective is the conservation and wise use of existing wetlands, they are nevertheless undertaking significant restoration, rehabilitation and wetland creation activities. These include Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and UK.

Encouraging active and informed action by local stakeholders

15. About half of the Contracting Parties have indicated measures to address this Operational Objective (2.7) of the Strategic Plan 1997-2002. Many National Reports describe steps to involve land owners and occupiers in the sustainable management of wetland protected areas (see paragraph 16 below). In particular, Member States of the European Union make frequent reference to the emphasis on dialogue with stakeholders in relation to designation and management of the EU-wide ‘Natura 2000’ network of protected areas. Germany refers to the tourism and recreation sector and the conclusion of three voluntary agreements covering the use of large lakes in the Land of Bayern (Bavaria). The first ‘MedWet’ project (established under the Mediterranean Wetlands initiative and funded by the European Union’s ACNAT programme) developed approaches for increasing awareness amongst local stakeholders at Mediterranean wetlands in Western Europe. Further EU funding, under the LIFE programme, was used to extend this work to other regions of the Mediterranean in the second MedWet project. Only one Contracting Party, The Netherlands, comments on the "participation of . . . indigenous people, and in particular women, in the conservation and wise use of wetlands" (as referred to in Actions 2.7.3 and 2.7.4 of the Strategic Plan).

Private sector involvement

16. Fewer than half of the Western European Contracting Parties (8/21) report on actions which contribute to implementation of Operational Objective 2.8 of the Strategic Plan 1997-2002 (‘to encourage involvement of the private sector in the conservation and wise use of wetlands’). In most cases, the reported actions relate to partnerships with the owners and occupiers (especially farmers) of wetland sites which are protected areas for nature conservation. Many countries note that management agreements/plans have been drawn up in consultation with owners and occupiers, and these often involve payments for specific management actions and/or financial compensation for avoiding damaging activities. Many Contracting Parties also report on the significant wetland work of private nature conservation organizations. In a number of cases (e.g., Belgium, Spain), governments provide financial assistance to private conservation bodies for the purchase and management of nature reserves, many of which are wetlands. It is striking that 80% of National Reports (17/21) make no reference to the role of the corporate sector, including private companies responsible for water supply and/or generation of hydro-electric power. Exceptions to this are as follows. Malta reports on sponsorship by a bank of a wetland visitors centre. The Netherlands provides an update on activities to strengthen wetland conservation and wise use as an objective in the overseas activities of the Dutch private sector (especially dredging and hydraulic engineering companies). In Spain, the Autonomous Governments of Andalucía and Murcia have concluded conservation agreements with hydro-electrical power and salt companies at specific wetland sites. In the UK, a number of corporate sponsors are supporting action plans for the conservation of wetland species, a guide entitled ‘Business and Biodiversity’ has been produced, and a major new wetland reserve in London is being established by a partnership between conservation bodies and the water and construction industries.

17. Special mention should be made of the financial support received by the Convention from the Danone Group (together with the French Global Environment Facility) for the Evian ‘Caring for Water Resources and Water Quality’ Initiative. The Evian Initiative has six action themes, covering transfer of know-how, training, water and health, meetings for decision makers, communications, and the Evian Prize.

Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 3
To raise awareness of wetland values and functions throughout the world and at all levels

Education and Public Awareness programmes (EPA)

18. Just over half of the COP7 National Reports for Western Europe (11/21) report the existence of some form of wetland-related, government-run Education & Public Awareness (EPA) programme. A similar number (12/21, mostly the same countries) refer to programmes run by the non-governmental sector, often involving the regular dissemination of newsletters, posters and brochures. A number of Contracting Parties refer to the important role of information centres at specific wetlands; for example, Greece has recently established centres at eight of its Ramsar sites. Amongst wider initiatives aimed (at least partly) at schools are the ‘Living Rivers Campaign’ in Austria, and a five-year (1996-2000), inter-ministerial, 34.5 million guilders environmental education programme in The Netherlands. France and Spain indicate that EPA is a major component of their national strategic/policy instruments for wetlands, whilst the UK has established an EPA subgroup of its National Ramsar Committee. Many Contracting Parties in the region have undertaken activities to mark World Wetlands Day in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Events range from media publicity for the designation of new Ramsar sites, to the production of wetland posters. In conclusion, it is noticeable that, with the exceptions of Greece and the UK, the National Reports devote relatively little space to this General Objective of the Strategic Plan.

Wise Use as part of formal education curricula

19. Approximately one-third of the COP7 National Reports advise that wetlands are covered in the formal curricula at primary, secondary or tertiary levels, usually as a component of biology and ecology. Some countries indicate that the concept of sustainable development is an important part of curricula (e.g., the Finnish National Board of Education has established a programme for promoting sustainable development during the period 1998-2000), but do not specify whether wise/sustainable use of wetlands is highlighted. Ireland has established an inter-Ministerial liaison committee to review the role of the education system in environmental awareness.

Wise use publications produced (Refer also to paragraph 10, under General Objective 2, above)

20. Germany refers to the Wadden Sea Plan, drawn up in the framework of the Trilateral Cooperation for the Wadden Sea (Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands), which may serve as an example for the implementation in practice of Ramsar guidelines on wise use and management planning. Germany also draws attention to the zonation of activities in the Schleswig-Holstein part of the Wadden Sea, and the incorporation of socio-economic considerations into restoration of small water courses. The UK provides a detailed description of a range of initiatives promoting and demonstrating the application of the Wise Use Guidelines by different sectors. Also under section 2.7 of the COP7 National Reports, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Switzerland refer to a variety of wetland-related publications, but do not indicate the extent to which these relate to implementation of the Wise Use Guidelines.

Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 4
To reinforce the capacity of institutions in each Contracting Party to achieve conservation and wise use of wetlands.

Institutional coordination and cooperation

21. National Ramsar/Wetland Committees (or similar structures) have been established by eight Contracting Parties in the region (Austria, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and UK). Detailed information on the structure and functioning of these committees can be obtained from the Ramsar Administrative Authority concerned or from the Ramsar Bureau. In most cases, the committees are composed of both governmental and non-governmental members, but in The Netherlands, the National Ramsar Committee is an NGO-led body, with the Administrative Authority participating in an observer capacity.

22. For the majority of Contracting Parties, where no national committee (or equivalent) exists, there is a variety of site-specific and project-specific working groups and consultative bodies which partly fill the role of inter-sectoral coordination on wetland issues. Details of these mechanisms can be found in the relevant National Reports.

Coordinated implementation of international conventions

23. All 22 Ramsar Contracting Parties in the Western European Region are also Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Twenty-one are also Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), 21 are also Parties to the World Heritage Convention (WHC), 20 are also Parties to CITES, 20 are also Parties to the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) and 17 are also Parties to the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS or Bonn Convention). The National Reports to COP7 indicate that in most Contracting Parties, there is a common government body (usually the Ministry of Environment or its equivalent) responsible for Ramsar, CBD, CMS, and, to an extent, FCCC, thereby facilitating exchange of information. Responsibility for CCD, FCCC and WHC is more typically shared between Ministries. Rather little information is provided on the mechanisms by which information is exchanged/shared in practice, and there are few examples given of overall coordination structures for international environment conventions at the national level. Belgium has a Coordination Committee for International Environment Policy, whilst all Ministries are represented in the The Netherlands’ Government Commission on Biodiversity and Environment.

Training needs and opportunities

24. Only a small minority of Contracting Parties have undertaken a wetland training needs analysis (2/21) or a review of wetland training opportunities (3/21). A larger number (8/21) reported the existence of wetland-related training activities within the country (mostly in relation to management of wetland protected areas), whilst more than half (14/21) reported that some of their nationals had received wetland training in other countries. From the information available, it is unclear why so few Contracting Parties have carried out training needs reviews.

Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 5
To ensure the conservation of all sites included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar List).

Status of management plans for Ramsar sites

25. Refer to the table in Section III and also to Ramsar COP7 Docs 13.3 and 15.2. In summary, the table presented in Section III suggests that within Western Europe limited progress has been made towards Operational Objective 5.2 of the Strategic Plan, which envisages development and implementation of management plans for all Ramsar sites. According to the COP7 National Reports, management plans are being implemented at 32% of sites. Action 5.2.3 of the Strategic Plan sets the target of at least 50% of sites to be covered by management plans by COP8 in 2002. This appears to be an attainable target for Western Europe, but clearly not without sustained efforts, including the allocation of additional resources. As indicated in the footnotes to the table, a number of sites are only partially covered by management plans, and it is thought that this may be a more widespread phenomenon (many Contracting Parties have special provisions for those parts of Ramsar sites which have strict protection under national protected area legislation) than shown. There is also anecdotal evidence from national reports that management activities are being implemented at many sites in the absence of an overall management planning structure. This explains why the table in Section III shows a higher % of sites with ‘Plans being implemented’, than ‘Plans fully prepared’.

Change in ecological character at Ramsar sites

26. These issues are considered in Ramsar COP7 Docs 13.3 and 15.2. Nine Contracting Parties (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Malta, Portugal, Spain and United Kingdom) report negative changes to the ecological character of at least one of their Ramsar sites; seven National Reports (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Portugal, Turkey, United Kingdom) refer to positive changes; and three Contracting Parties (Norway, Sweden, Switzerland) report that no significant changes have occurred since COP6. At least five National Reports provided insufficient information on this issue, and no conclusions can be drawn for these countries. Only four reports (Belgium, Germany, Ireland, UK) contain detailed information for multiple sites. The German and UK reports provide particularly helpful summaries, with the UK’s ‘Site Supplement’ to its National Report presenting information on the ecological character of all its sites. For the region as a whole, the most frequently mentioned causes of adverse change include eutrophication, low water levels due to drainage for agriculture, water abstraction, accelerated vegetation succession, transport infrastructure development and recreation impacts. Implementation of management plans, measures to improve water quality/quantity, and controls on recreational activities are amongst the reasons for positive changes, where they have been noted.

Montreux Record sites

27. These issues are considered in Ramsar COP7 Docs 13.3 and 15.2.

Sites referred to in COP6 Recommendation 6.17

28. These issues are considered in Ramsar COP7 Docs 13.3 and 15.2.

Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 6
To designate for the Ramsar List those wetlands which meet the Convention’s criteria, especially wetland types still under-represented in the List and trans-frontier wetlands.

National inventories and directories of "important" wetlands

29. Most Contracting Parties report having some form of national wetland inventory or directory, but in many cases these refer to specific wetland types or are part of wider inventories (e.g., of important sites for nature conservation in general). Only a few Contracting Parties (Austria, Greece, Norway and Sweden) report that they have produced comprehensive inventories of all important wetlands in their territory. Similarly, only a small number of countries (e.g., France, The Netherlands, UK) indicate that they have rigorously reviewed a list of important wetlands against the full suite of Ramsar criteria or plan to undertake such a review. Furthermore, existing inventories in the region have been carried out according to widely differing standards, definitions, and/or criteria, and there remains no overall inventory - even of internationally important wetlands - for Western Europe as a whole. Wetlands International is currently working on a Pan-European wetland inventory, an activity which has also been identified as a major priority in the framework of the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy and IUCN’s ‘Parks for Life’ programme, and which will undoubtedly help stimulate and coordinate efforts at the national level.

Estimates of wetland area and rates of loss and conversion

30. Two-thirds of the COP7 National Reports (14/21) indicate the existence of at least some statistical information concerning the area covered by wetlands. Five reports indicate that no such information is available, and two Contracting Parties did not respond to this question. Less data is available on the issue of wetland loss and conversion rates, with nine Contracting Parties (just over 40%) advising that partial statistics can be provided, another nine reporting that no information is available, and three not replying to this question. The following Contracting Parties have included at least some quantitative information in their National Reports (though only Denmark provides overall estimates of both the past and current extent of wetlands):

Area of wetlands: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland (mires), Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Malta, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, UK

Rates of loss: Denmark, Finland (mires), Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, UK

If it is accepted that information on the extent of the past and current wetland resource and reasons for ongoing wetland losses are important baseline data for effective programmes of conservation and wise use (including restoration and rehabilitation), this issue would appear to warrant greater attention in Western Europe in the next triennium.

COP6 priorities for Ramsar listing and statements of intent

31. In the National Reports submitted for COP6 and/or during the Conference Plenary Sessions, the following Contracting Parties indicated plans for the designation of new Listed Sites: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, and UK.

32. Up to 15 February 1999, and since the COP6 National Reports were due (1 September 1995), new sites have been designated as follows: Austria (1 site), France (2 sites), Ireland (24 sites), Luxembourg (1 site), Malta (1 site), Monaco (1 site), Norway (9 sites), Portugal (8 sites), Spain (3 sites), Turkey (4 new sites, 2 extensions), and United Kingdom (40 new sites, with another 4 additions pending receipt of completed Ramsar Information Sheets, plus 2 site extensions). In the case of Austria and the UK, these include peatland sites, thus responding to Action 6.2.3 of the Strategic Plan. Otherwise, designation of wetland types under-represented in the Ramsar List (Operational Objective 6.2) has been disappointing. France, The Netherlands, and UK all have overseas territories with under-represented tropical wetland types (coral reefs, mangroves, sea-grass beds). At the time of writing, no new sites had been designated since COP6, but the UK indicates that plans for such designations are well advanced. Ireland indicates that designation of sites containing peatlands, karst wetlands and seagrass beds is under consideration. Of the remaining countries mentioned in paragraph 31 above, Belgium, Finland, Germany and The Netherlands indicate in their COP7 National Reports that progress continues to be made towards the designation of new sites. As of 15 February 1999, a total of 486 Ramsar sites have been designated by Contracting Parties in the Western European region, representing an increase of more than 20% since September 1995. However, it is also noticeable that only five Contracting Parties in the region have designated sites since 31 December 1996. In the case of many EU Member States, this may reflect the fact that priority is being given to establishment of the ‘Natura 2000’ network of protected areas. It is expected that, in due course, national Natura 2000 programmes will also contribute to the identification and designation of new Ramsar sites.

Transfrontier sites

33. The following ten Contracting Parties in Western Europe (50%) have Ramsar sites in transboundary locations: Austria (4 sites), Belgium (3 sites), Denmark (1 site), Germany (6 sites), Greece (2 sites), Netherlands (2 sites), Norway (1 site), Portugal (1 site), Switzerland (2 sites), and UK (3 sites). In some cases, the wetland is only Ramsar-designated by one of the countries concerned. The above-mentioned total of 25 sites represents approximately 5% of the Ramsar List in Western Europe.

Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 7
To mobilise international cooperation and financial assistance for wetland conservation and wise use in collaboration with other conventions and agencies, both governmental and non-governmental.

Bilateral or multilateral activities for shared wetlands, watersheds and species

34. In spite of the large number of relatively small countries in the Western European Ramsar region, the COP7 National Reports refer to relatively few bilateral and multi-lateral activities for shared wetlands and watersheds. Many of those mentioned relate to the twinning programmes listed below in paragraph 36, although international commissions for major transboundary lakes and rivers are mentioned by Finland, France, Germany and Switzerland. Austria highlights transboundary cooperation with its neighbours in the Eastern European Ramsar region (Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic). Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands report on progress under the Trilateral Wadden Sea Cooperation, notably adoption in 1997 of the Trilateral Wadden Sea Plan.

35. Many countries in the region participate actively in bilateral or multilateral activities for shared wetland species. For example, 17 Ramsar Contracting Parties are also Contracting Parties to the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS or Bonn Convention), whilst twenty are Contracting Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Regional instruments relevant to the conservation of wetland species include the ‘Bern’ Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (21 of the 22 Ramsar Contracting Parties), the African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement under the Bonn Convention, and the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy. Most countries in the region also contribute to the International Waterfowl Census organized by Wetlands International.

"Twinned" sites

36. Twinning of Ramsar sites is reported as follows:

Austria (2 sites within the Danube National Park are closely linked within Austria, and the National Park is twinned with the Hungarian Danube-Drau National Park, which contains two Ramsar sites).

Denmark/Germany/The Netherlands (the Wadden Sea is twinned with The Wash Ramsar site in the UK and with coastal areas of Guinea Bissau, including Lagoa Cufada Ramsar site).

France (La Camargue is twinned with the Danube Delta, Romania)

Germany (cooperation between German protected areas containing Ramsar sites and those in Estonia [Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft National Park and Lahemaa National Park], Poland [Lower Oder Valley National Park and Biebrza National Park] Russian Federation [Wadden Sea and Great Arctic reserve/Taimyr Reserve], Senegal [Land of Nordrhein Westfalen and Djoudj National Park])

Iceland (Myvatn-Laxá Ramsar site is twinned with part of Lough Neagh & Lough Beg Ramsar site, UK)

Ireland (Clara Bog & Raheenmore Bog Ramsar sites are twinned with Bargerveen Ramsar site in The Netherlands, within the EUROSITE programme)

The Netherlands (see also above, under Denmark/Germany/The Netherlands and Ireland; in addition, 5 further Dutch Ramsar sites are twinned under the EUROSITE programme with wetlands in France, Germany, Poland [the Polish wetland is also a Ramsar site], and UK [the UK wetlands are also Ramsar sites].

Portugal (Ria Formosa Ramsar site is twinned with two non-Ramsar wetlands in France)

Spain (Albufera de Mallorca Ramsar site is twinned with a non-Ramsar wetland in France; Doñana National Park is twinned with Tortugero National Park in Costa Rica)

UK (see above under Denmark/Germany/The Netherlands, and Iceland)

Within the framework of the Evian Project (see paragraph 17) two site networks have been established; one covering deltas of closed seas (Mediterranean, Black Sea, Caspian Sea), the other covering wetlands along the East Atlantic Flyway.

Coordinated implementation of international conventions

37. Refer to paragraph 23, under General Objective 4, above.

Support from bilateral or multilateral donors

38. In general, the Western European region is a net donor of bilateral and multilateral support for wetland conservation. However, European Union Member States have received support from the EU LIFE programme, notably for conservation management, restoration/rehabilitation and wise use of wetlands which have been included (or formally proposed for inclusion) in the ‘Natura 2000’ network of protected sites. Many of these wetlands are also designated as Ramsar sites. The EU’s Cohesion Fund is co-financing Ireland’s river catchment management programme.

Budgetary allocations for wetlands conservation and wise use outside the country and consultation between the development assistance agency and the Ramsar Administrative Authority

39. Many Western European Contracting Parties have an extremely significant role as major donors of bilateral development assistance and contributors to sources of multilateral assistance. The COP7 National Reports indicate that bilateral development assistance agencies are regularly supporting projects which contribute to achieving the goals of the Ramsar Convention. However, no Contracting Party indicates that its development assistance agency has a specific budget earmarked for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands and their resources.

Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 8
To provide the Convention with the required institutional mechanisms and resources.

Budgetary allocations for wetlands conservation and wise use in the country

40. All except two Contracting Parties indicated that there are annual budgetary allocations by government to support wetland conservation and wise use. However, in the majority of cases, these allocations are part of larger environmental/nature conservation budgets and not specifically allocated to wetlands.

Annual and voluntary contributions

41. As of 15 February 1999, each Contracting Party in the Western European region had met in full its responsibility to pay annual contributions to the Ramsar core budget for the years 1988 to 1997 (inclusive). One Contracting Party, Belgium, had remaining dues for 1998. In addition, three Contracting Parties had very minor amounts outstanding for 1998 as a result of the Bureau having to issue revised invoices to reflect changes in the UN scale of contributions. This excellent record of payment reflects a strong commitment by the Western European Contracting Parties; a commitment which has been maintained in the context of percentage increases in the UN scale for most countries in the region (as agreed by the UN General Assembly) as well as increases in the Ramsar budget (as agreed by the Conference of Parties).

42. The annual contributions invoiced in 1999 range from CHF 117 (Monaco) to CHF 287,023 (Germany). In total, the Western European region is responsible for providing CHF 1,136,382 or 39% of the Convention’s core budget for 1999, more than any other Ramsar region. However, the median annual contribution invoiced in 1999 is a modest CHF 19,000, reflecting the fact that four Contracting Parties (France, Germany, Italy and the UK) are responsible between them for 70% of the region’s 1999 contributions.

43. One area worthy of further attention is the timing of contributions during the Convention’s annual budget cycle (=calendar year). As of 15 February, the Bureau had received 1999 contributions from only six Contracting Parties (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Malta, Monaco and the UK). As noted by the COP and Standing Committee, it will greatly assist the Bureau’s financial planning if all Contracting Parties can arrange to make their contributions early in the calendar year. Currently, invoices are issued annually in November. The Bureau is in a position to issue invoices at an earlier date (e.g., August) if this would assist Contracting Parties to expedite their contributions.

44. Since COP6 many Western European Contracting Parties have made generous additional voluntary contributions to the work of the Convention. These have included a large number of financial contributions, as well as the provision of support in kind (e.g., conference facilities, participation of experts in Ramsar meetings at no cost to the Convention). Voluntary financial contributions since COP6 have been made for the following purposes:

45. Austria: Small Grants Fund; Pan-European Regional Meeting; white stork twinning programme with Kenya (funded by Federal Government and Provincial Government of Styria); COP7.

Belgium (Région Wallonne): Small Grants Fund; COP7.

Denmark: Small Grants Fund - 25th Anniversary pledge.

France: support for MedWet coordination through Tour du Valat; support for the ‘Evian Programme’ through the French GEF; Pan-European Regional Meeting; COP7 (pledge).

Germany: Small Grants Fund; Pan-European Regional Meeting; COP7.

Greece: support for MedWet coordination (through the Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre); COP7.

Iceland: Small Grants Fund - 25th Anniversary pledge.

Netherlands: Small Grants Fund; Biodiversity of Inland Waters workshop; COP7.

Norway: Pan-European Regional Meeting; COP7 (pledge).

Spain: 2nd meeting of the Mediterranean Wetlands Committee; economic valuation of wetlands book (Cataluña); COP7.

Sweden: Small Grants Fund; African, Asian, European & Oceanian Regional Meetings; Economic valuation of Wetlands book; COP7 (pledge).

Switzerland: annual grant for work in Africa; Small Grants Fund; Pan-African Regional Meeting; 25th Anniversary pledge; support for major ‘coffee table’ book on Ramsar sites; COP7 (pledge).

UK: 25th Anniversary pledge; Economic valuation of wetlands book; project on involving local and indigenous people in the management of Ramsar wetlands; Pan-European Regional Meeting; COP7 (pledge).

Optional section - Participation of non-government organizations in the implementation of the Convention

46. In this optional section of the National Report, Contracting Parties were asked to describe the nature of the cooperation and relationship with any other international, regional, national and provincial NGOs operating within their territory. All Contracting Parties except two (19/21) addressed this section of the National Report, reflecting the important role which non-governmental organizations play in many aspects of wetland conservation and wise use.

NGOs which have wetlands as part of their regular "business" in the country

47. Ninety per cent of Contracting Parties (18/20) indicate the existence of NGOs which are regularly active in wetland conservation. These include a wide range of international, national and sub-national/local NGOs.

Consultative mechanisms involving NGOs for wetland conservation and Ramsar implementation

48. Formal consultative mechanisms for NGOs and Governments to discuss Ramsar-related issues are reported by 55% of Contracting Parties (11/20). In many cases, National Ramsar/Wetland Committees (or equivalent) include NGO members.

NGO representative on official delegation to Ramsar COPs

49. France, Germany and The Netherlands indicate that NGO representatives may be included in official Ramsar COP delegations.

NGOs as part of site management committees

50. NGOs are active in the site management committees (or equivalents) in at least half (10/20) of the Contracting Parties.

Areas of Ramsar work where NGOs are most active

51. The National Reports indicate a wide range of NGO activities related to wetlands, but, in particular, site management and education & public awareness.

Other comments and suggestions:

52. There are relatively few comments and suggestions made in this optional section of the National Reports, and only a small number of points are made by more than one country. Several Contracting Parties make positive comments about the work of the official structures of the Convention, as well as about the general usefulness of the Strategic Plan as an overall framework. Austria and the UK note that, in broadening the scope of its activities, the Convention should take care not to lower the priority given to nature conservation.


§III. Summary statistics

This Summary statistics section has been prepared based on the responses to each question asked in the National Reports prepared by each Contracting Party from the region. In Section I more detailed information is provided and the corresponding paragraphs are indicated in the "Nos." column below. In the table below the response of each Contracting Party to the key questions asked in the approved National Report format have been scored as either Y=Yes or N=No. In some cases the total of these responses may not be as great as the number of the National Reports submitted for this region because not every question was answered by all Contracting Parties.

This summary table is designed to give a clearer view at both the regional level of those areas of the Convention’s Strategic Plan 1997-2002 which have been addressed since the 6th Conference of the Contracting Parties and conversely, where the National Reports indicate there has been little or no activity. Those areas of activity where the National Reports have indicated little activity are shown in shaded cells. [Note: in this Web version, these shaded cells appears as white rows against the aqua background.]

Nos.

Strategic Plan General Objectives and (Actions)

Y

N

  General Objective 1 - Universal membership    

1-2

Actions taken to encourage accession by non-Contracting Parties (Actions 1.1.1- 2)

9

12

  General Objective 2 - Promoting the wise use of wetlands    

3-7

National Wetland Policy/Strategy/Action Plan in place (Action 2.1.2)

3

18

3-7

National Wetland Policy/Strategy/Action Plan is being developed (Action 2.1.2)

3

18

3-7

Conservation and wise use of wetlands forms part (or will) of other national environmental / conservation planning initiatives (Action 2.1.2)

21

-

3-7

For countries with a Federal system of government, there are Wetland Policies/Strategies/Plans in place, being developed or planned for the provincial/state levels of Government (Action 2.1.2)

3

3

8

Review of legislation and practices which impact on wetlands has been carried out (Action 2.1.1)

5

16

8

Legislative or similar amendments have been made (Action 2.1.1)

4

8

11

Actions taken to address the impacts of toxic chemicals and pollution on wetlands (Action 2.3.1)

-

16

10, 20

Production of "Wise Use" publication (Action 2.3.2)

2

17

9

Efforts are being made to have wetlands managed as integrated components of land/water and coastal zone resources and environments (Action 2.2.2).

11

9

12

Actions taken to incorporate wetland economic valuation techniques into natural resource planning and assessment actions (Actions 2.4.1, 2.4.3)

6

14

13

Environmental Impact Assessment is required for actions potentially impacting on wetlands (Actions 2.5.2, 2.5.3)

17

3

14

Wetland restoration and rehabilitation is being undertaken to some extent (Actions 2.6.1- 3)

18

3

15

The participation of local stakeholders in the conservation and wise use of wetlands is being encouraged (Actions 2.7.1 - 4)

12

8

16-17

Private sector involvement in the conservation and wise use of wetlands is being encouraged (Actions 2.8.1-4)

8

13

  General Objective 3 - Raising awareness of wetland values and functions    

18

There exist government-run programmes for Education and Public Awareness in this country which include wetlands (Actions 3.2.1-2)

11

9

18

There exist non-government-run programmes for Education and Public Awareness in this country which include wetlands (Actions 3.2.1-2, 8.3.1)

12

5

19

Wetlands issues and Ramsar’s Wise Use principles are included as part of the curricula of educational institutions. (Action 3.2.5)

6

13

  General Objective 4 - Reinforcing the capacity of institutions    

21-22

Mechanisms are in place, or being introduced, to increase cooperation between the institutions responsible for wetlands management (Actions 4.1.1-2, 8.1.9-10)

18

2

21-22

A National Ramsar/Wetland Committee exists - government only (Actions 4.1.1-2, 8.1.9-10)

-

21

21-22

A National Ramsar/Wetland Committee exists - it includes non-government representatives (it is cross-sectoral) (Actions 4.1.1-2, 8.1.9-10)

8

13

24

A training needs analysis has been done or is underway (Action 4.2.1)

3

16

24

A review of training opportunities has been completed (Action 4.2.2)

2

16

24

Training modules or training programmes specifically for wetland managers have been completed, or are being developed (Action 4.2.3).

8

10

24

Nationals of the country have gained wetland-related training either within or outside the country (Action 4.2.4).

14

5

  General Objecctive 5 - Management of Listed sites    

25-28

See the table below and Ramsar COP7 Docs 13.3 and 15.2    

 

Contracting Party Number of Ramsar sites Plans being prepared (or updated) Plans fully prepared Plans being implemented Plans include monitoring
Austria

9

3

2

4

6

Belgium

6

0

0

4

1

Denmark

38 (includes 11in Greenland)

1

5

4

10

Finland*

11

0

4

0

3

France

15 (+3 in DTs)

0

0

0

0

Germany

31

16

0

10

5

Greece

10

0

0

10

10

Iceland

3

0

0

0

0

Ireland

45

31

-

-

1

Italy

46

0

8

3

3

Liechtenstein

1

0

1

0

1

#Luxembourg

1

-

-

-

-

Malta

2

0

0

2

2

Monaco

1

0

0

0

0

Netherlands

18 (+6 in DTs)

0

0

18

18

Norway

23

6

1

7

13

Portugal

10

4

0

2

0

Spain

38

3

3

11

17

Sweden**

30

0

0

16

16

Switzerland

8

0

0

8

2

Turkey

9

4

0

1

1

United Kingdom***

129 (+2 in DTs)

27

5

57

89 ***

Totals

495 (494)#

95 (19%)

29 (6% )

157 (32% )

198 (40%) ***

Notes: # = Luxembourg had not submitted a National Report at the time of compiling this table and so the total of sites included in the survey is 494.

DT= Overseas/Dependent Territories of France, Netherlands and UK.

*= for Finland 2 management plans are being partly implemented.

**= 4 sites in Sweden are only covered partially by management plans.

***= in the United Kingdom 23 of the management plans being implemented cover only part of the site concerned; another 3 plans are being partly implemented whilst the full plans await completion.

Nos.

General Objective 6 - Designation of Ramsar sites

Y

N

29

A national inventory of wetlands has been completed (Action 6.1.2)

12

9

29

A national inventory of wetlands is planned for the near future (Action 6.1.2)

3

17

31-32

Actions been taken to list under-represented wetland types on the List or in response to the various related decisions from COP6 (Actions 6.2.1, 6.2.3)

4

15

33

The country has sites included in the Ramsar list which are transfrontier sites (Actions 6.2.5, 7.1.1)

11

8

  General Objective 7 - Mobilising international cooperation and financial assistance    

34-35

Bilateral or multilateral activities have been taken, are underway, or are planned for the management of trans-frontier wetlands or their watersheds/catchments (Actions 6.2.5, 7.1.1)

12

6

36

Countries which have Ramsar sites that are "twinned" with others (Action 7.1.2).

9

10

23

Mechanisms in place to promote cooperative actions between the Ramsar Administrative Authority and the focal points for other international environment Conventions to which the country is a signatory (Actions 7.2.3-5, 7.2.7-8)

16

4

34-35

The country is cooperating as part of bilateral or multilateral activities directed at the conservation of migratory wetland species (Action 7.2.5).

17

4

38

Multilateral and/or bilateral donors are supporting projects which contribute to implementation of the Ramsar Convention in this country (Actions 7.33, 7.4.2, 7.4.4)

8

10

39

The government makes an annual budgetary allocation to support the conservation and wise use of wetlands within the country (Action 7.4.1).

19

2

39

The country has a development assistance programme which includes funds earmarked for wetland conservation and wise use in other countries (Action 7.4.2)

6

14

39

There is a formal process in place for consultation between the Ramsar Administrative Authority and the development assistance programme in the country, where one exists (Action 7.4.2)

3

3

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