Involving local and indigenous people in the management of Ramsar wetlands

10/02/1997

Project Proposal in Response to Recommendation 6.3 of the 1996 Ramsar Conference of Contracting Parties

[Note: this project has been completed. See Ramsar Resolution VII.8.]


Implementing organisation: IUCN
Geographical scope: global
Project submission: January 1997
Duration of the project: 34 months (March 1997 - December 1999)
Budget: Swiss francs 261,000
Prepared by: IUCN Social Policy Group on behalf of the IUCN Wetlands Conservation Programme, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Wetlands Programme, the Kushiro International Wetlands Centre and the Caddo Lake Institute

January 1997


    ACRONYMS

    CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
    COP Conference of the Parties (Ramsar)
    IUCN The World Conservation Union
    SC Steering Committee
    SPG Social Policy Group (of IUCN)
    WWF World Wide Fund for Nature


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Resolution 6.3 of the Ramsar Conference (Brisbane, 1996) called upon Contracting Parties "to make specific efforts to encourage active and informed participation of local and indigenous people at Ramsar listed sites and other wetlands and their catchments, and their direct involvement, through appropriate mechanisms, in wetland management." This project proposal - developed in partnership among the World Conservation Union (IUCN), the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF Intrernational), the Kushiro International Wetlands Center and the Caddo Lake Institute - is a direct response to that resolution.

The project will examine field-based experiences (successes and failures) in participatory approaches to wetland management, from which it will produce a set of guidelines for the involvement of local and indigenous communities in wetland management. To this end, an action-oriented framework of inquiry will be developed and case studies will be commissioned on at least twenty Ramsar sites spanning a wide variety of socio-ecological conditions. Lessons learned from the management processes in these sites will be distilled and then discussed and peer reviewed in expert group meetings - by renowned professionals and by the Ramsar Parties themselves. The process, which will last two years, will result in a document collecting lessons, criteria and guidelines. Upon approval by the partner organisations, this document will be attached to an official resolution for adoption at the 7th Ramsar Conference of the Parties (San José, Costa Rica, May 1999).

At the COP, a workshop will be organised and facilitated to discuss the resolution in detail. The decisions adopted at the COP and the supporting document - revised if and as requested - will be included in a basic text of reference for the Ramsar parties on involving local and indigenous peoples in the management of wetlands around the world. The text of reference will be published and diffused in three languages.

The IUCN Social Policy Group will manage the project in close collaboration with all partners. Some complementary activities (e.g. an expert workshop in Kushiro, the development of a resolution on the basis of the document of lessons, criteria and guidelines) will be directly managed and funded by the other partners and are not made explicit in the current proposal. The total budget for about three years of activities and outputs of specific IUCN responsibility is SFr. 261.000

The project will allow the Ramsar Secretariat and Contracting Parties to adequately respond to resolution 6.3 of the Brisbane COP. Through a well focused process of reflection and awareness raising on a crucial and contentious aspect in the management of wetlands, the project will distill lessons learned and compile criteria and guidelines for action. As Ramsar parties and wetland management experts will be actively involved in developing those lessons and guidelines, they will be more inclined to understand and use them in implementing Ramsar resolutions. Local and indigenous peoples will thus be - more often and more effectively - involved in the management of Ramsar sites and wetlands in general.

The project will also be of relevance to all the signatories of the Convention on Biological Diversity (see articles 8b, 8i, 8j, 10c, 10d, 10e and 11). Preliminary results will be shared and enriched at the 1998 meeting of the Parties to the CBD Convention (Bratislava, May 1988) and final results will be made available to various CBD fora.

Ultimately, this project will contribute to both a more effective management of wetland resources and the establishment of more equitable and democratic institutions in charge of such management.


CONTENTS

1. BACKGROUND AND NEEDS ADDRESSED

    1.1 Resolutions adopted by previous meetings of the contracting parties

    1.2 Why community involvement is beneficial

    1.3 Recommendation 6.3 adopted at the 6th COP (Brisbane 1996)

2. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

3. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

4. PLAN OF OPERATIONS

    4.1 Solicit, gather and edit case studies

    4.2 Produce a preliminary report on cases and lessons for action (synthesis of field-based experience)

    4.3 Hold a technical workshop to produce draft criteria and guidelines for the Ramsar COP

    4.4 Solict inputs from Ramsar parties and management experts and incorporate them into a document integrating lessons learned and guidelines

    4.5 Organise and facilitate a technical session at COP-7

    4.6 Produce a ‘text of reference’ for the Ramsar parties

5. WORK SCHEDULE

6. BUDGET

7. REFERENCES


1. BACKGROUND AND NEEDS ADDRESSED

From time immemorial, human communities lived close to wetlands, exploiting and enjoying their resources. Although wetland products were of key socio-economic importance, this generally meant only minor ecological interference - people gathered products (e.g. fish, bird eggs, crustacea, reeds) in limited quantities and/or sporadically. At times, however, and increasingly so in recent times, the interference has been substantial. People, and especially private investors, have exploited wetland resources on such a large scale that they entirely modify the character of the original ecosystems (e.g. replacing mangroves with shrimp farms, mining coral beds, fishing with destructive technologies, diverting large quantities of water for irrigation purposes, draining marshes for agriculture, and so on). In between the extremes, many communities have managed to maintain their wetlands in reasonably sound conditions while interacting daily with them and using their products wisely for a variety of purposes.

Over the past decades, people have come to realise that conservation of the natural environment - wetlands, range lands, forests, coastal and marine areas - can not rely solely upon technocratic management of natural resources, nor can it be achieved by excluding the local people living in and around an area and using its products. Time after time, the experience of agencies and organisations holding the responsibility for natural resource management has shown that it is extremely difficult to achieve sustainability if the communities most closely associated with the resources are left out of management decisions. At best the local people show indifference to conservation, at worst they intensify their attempts at quick resource exploitation and thus accelerate the degradation of the environment. This is confirmed by ‘positive’ experiences as well. Several wetland management initiatives which do involve local communities - to a greater or lesser extent - experience various degrees of success, but invariably provide pointers for learning from experience.

The Ramsar Convention has been aware of the benefits of involving local communities in the management of natural resources and has indeed developed the concept of the Wise Use of Wetlands, which fully recognizes the positive management role of local residents and resource users. Despite this, the subject has not been a major feature of the work of the Convention nor of its Contracting Parties. This changed in 1996, when the Brisbane Conference held a technical session on community involvement and drew specific recommendations for the Ramsar Convention, its Contracting Parties, and its Bureau.

1.1 Resolutions adopted by previous meetings of the contracting parties

It was at the Third Meeting of the Conference of Contracting Parties (COP) held in Regina (Canada) in 1987 that the benefits of wetlands for people were first given special emphasis as a rationale for the protection of wetlands. At this meeting the term "wise use" was defined as "the sustainable utilisation of wetlands for the benefit of humankind in a way compatible with the maintenance of the natural properties of the ecosystem", and a specific recommendation (C.3.3) pointed the way towards greater community involvement in wetland management.

At the Montreux Meeting of the Contracting Parties in 1990, this was further amplified in the Appendix to Recommendation C.4.10 (Guidelines for the implementation of the wise use concept). The recommendation includes provisions for:

    "the establishment, implementation and, as necessary, periodic revision of management plans which involve local people and take account of their requirements".

The emphasis was towards increasing awareness of decision makers and the public of the benefits and values of wetlands, training of appropriate staff in the implementation of wetland policies, and reviewing traditional techniques of wise use. In other words, local people were seen as a source of information and knowledge for the decision makers and staff to manage the resource wisely. Following this meeting, the Wise Use Project was set up to provide examples of wise use of wetlands.

The Wise Use Project reported to the Kushiro Meeting of the Contracting Parties in 1993 and in the Annex to Resolution C.5.6 (Additional guidance for the implementation of the wise use concept) suggested that the Contracting Parties:

    "might establish procedures which guarantee that local communities are involved in the decision-making process related to wetland use, and provide local communities with sufficient knowledge of planned activities to ensure their meaningful participation in this decision making process."

Under the section on integrated management planning, it was also suggested that:

    "a management authority charged with the implementation of the management process should be appointed; . . .strong cooperation and participation from governmental and non-governmental agencies, as well as from local people, needs to be achieved".

Further to the adoption of expanded guidelines for the implementation of the wise use of wetlands by the Montreux Conference in 1990, the Wise Use Working Group recommended that:

    "At local level, countries . . . establish procedures to guarantee that local populations are involved in the decision-making process related to wetland use and to provide local populations with sufficient knowledge of planned activities to assure their meaningful participation in this decision-making process. There should be working groups or advisory boards representing users, NGOs and local authorities.

    General wise use legislation for wetlands should consider . . . the institution of a system of management agreements between relevant government agencies, landowners and land users to provide positive management measures by the latter when this is required for the maintenance of the ecosystem.

    Legislation for the conservation and wise use of specific wetland sites (e.g. Ramsar sites, ecologically sensitive areas, areas with a high degree of biodiversity, sites containing endemic species, wetland nature reserves) should consider:

    • the division of those wetlands into different zones with particular regulations,
    • the encouragement of traditional and other ecological and sustainable activities in these areas thorough incentives and advice,
    • the establishment of a management system in each area which should have legal support and of a management body to oversee the implementation and to ensure that regulations are observed;
    • the association of populations living in or close to the area with its management, through appropriate representation . . . ."

In general, the Group recognised that :

    "wetland management should be adapted to specific circumstances, sensible to local cultures and respectful of traditional uses. Management . . . needs to be adapted to suit local conditions."

The Working Group’s conclusions were adopted in Resolution 5.6 by the Conference at its meeting in Kushiro, Japan, in 1993.

The evolution of the idea of local community involvement in wetland management is clear from the wording of the above reports and resolutions and can be easily followed in the Ramsar Convention Manual (Davis, 1993). At the start, there was a recognition of the interests and traditional uses which local communities have in wetlands throughout the world. This developed further to recognising the need to consult local people so that decision makers and resource managers can take their interests into account. Finally, it became clear that local people need to be actively involved in the decision-making and management processes along with other interest groups.

In addition to the Ramsar Convention, other major international conventions have understood and incorporated principles of sustainable use of natural resources and involvement of local and indigenous communities in their management. Suffice may as example the following articles of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD):

    Article 8 In-situ conservation
    (b) develop, where necessary, guidelines for the selection, establishment and management of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity;
    (i) endeavour to provide the conditions needed for compatibility between present uses and the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components;
    (j) subject to its national legislation, respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices for indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilisation of such knowledge, innovations and practices.

    Article 10: Sustainable Use of Component of Biological Diversity
    ( c ) protect and encourage customary uses of biological resources in accordance with traditional cultural practices that are compatible with conservation or sustainable use requirements;
    ( d ) support local populations to develop and implement remedial action in degraded areas where biological diversity has been reduced.

    Article 11: Incentive Measures Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and appropriate, adopt economically and socially sound measures that act as incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of components of biological diversity.

As many of the Parties in the Ramsar Convention are also signatories of the CBD, this initiative will allow countries to address their obligations with respect to both international agreements.

1.2 Why community involvement is beneficial

Experience has shown that management regimes which involve a variety of stakeholders and - in particular - local residents and indigenous communities - tend to be more sustainable than those which are imposed on a community. This was evidenced, for example, in the findings of the Wise Use Working Group. It is important to acknowledge that there is a limit to the contribution that technical expertise can bring to wetland conservation, and that the social dimension which community involvement can bring is as essential to management as technical soundness is. It is also important to recognise that involving peoples and communities in management initiatives is not "doing them a favour". It may actually mean a substantial investment of time and resources by the community members directly involved, which may detract from their productive work and income.

By involving local and indigenous people in:

  • identifying the problems;
  • deciding upon the solutions;
  • implementing activities;
  • monitoring the effectiveness of agreed measures to address the problems and opportunities;

the overall main benefit to expect is the enhanced sustainability of management activities. Some refer to this as seeking ‘social sustainability’ (IUCN, 1997) - an inseparable component of the ecological sustainability of the relevant wetland resources.

Specifically, sustainability will be enhanced because of the following benefits of participation:

· acceptance of local responsibility
Communities become responsible and accountable for the sound management of the resource - there is no longer a situation of "them versus us" where communities look for ways to get around the restrictions placed on them by an outside body. If one specific agency is in change, that agency will see its burden shared and thereby lessened. If no specific body is in charge, the "tragedy of the commons" in which natural resources become over-exploited because nobody has the responsibility for limiting exploitation, can also be avoided. Whilst arrangements for assigning responsibility will differ depending upon the circumstances, (e.g. leasing, contractual agreements), the basic mechanism of joint-committees in which different groups have to account for their actions provides the means of applying pressure to comply with jointly agreed measures.

· community commitment
Communities become "owners" of the conservation process and thereby develop a sense of commitment and are more prepared to make a longer-term investment in sound resource management. Out of this comes increased trust between state agencies and stakeholders, and greater commitment to implement decisions taken together. If communities are likely to lose out because of the conservation measures, management mechanisms can provide compensation. Most importantly, alliances between state agencies and local stakeholders are generally effective at fending off resource exploitation from non-local interests, which often represent the main threat to conservation.

· utilisation of local knowledge and skills
Local knowledge and skills are made available to assist in the on-going identification of problems and solutions. Often this information is difficult to access and special participatory processes are needed to bring it to the surface. In addition, the unique comparative advantages of the local residents (e.g. for monitoring the status of the resources or surveying the entrance to the wetland areas) can be fully harnessed.

· effective monitoring
By involving the community in day-to-day management, the monitoring of natural resources becomes easier and more effective. Since local people live and work "on the spot", problems are more likely to be identified and mistakes corrected more quickly than if monitoring is carried out by professionals on a sporadic basis. For instance, local people can watch out for detrimental activities such as illegal hunting and polluting discharges. However, social pressure may make monitoring of such activities problematic when they are generated from within the community.

· enhanced environmental awareness in the community at large
Involving communities in the management of their natural resources raises the consciousness of citizens in the value of wetlands, and the impact of human activities upon them. The knowledge and networks they acquire through their involvement can also increase their ability to identify and deal with future environmental problems in their region.

· enhanced impact awareness among resource users
By involving the local resource users in the monitoring process, they will become more conscious of the impact of their own activities on the resources as well as the activities of others. Their involvement in the process will also help them to obtain knowledge of how to respond to, or how to avoid altogether, some adverse impacts on the environment.

· community reassurance
Communities are less likely to feel threatened by the restrictions on future use of the resource, if they or their representatives have been involved in determining these restrictions and the trade-offs they involve. This is particularly important when the communities are reliant on the wetland resources for their own survival.

· reduction of enforcement expenditures
Local involvement also contributes to a reduction in enforcement expenditures because of voluntary compliance. In general, participatory processes contribute to build a democratic society in which private and voluntary groups increasingly take upon themselves a variety of social functions and responsibilities.

The above are further explained and discussed in West and Brechin (1991), Barzetti (1993), Western and Wright (1995), McNeely (1995), IUCN (1996) and Borrini-Feyerabend (1996 and 1997).

1.3 Recommendation 6.3 adopted at the 6th COP (Brisbane 1996)

In light of the multiple benefits of local involvement, recommendation 6.3 (Involving local and indigenous peoples in the management of Ramsar wetlands) of the Ramsar COP in Brisbane, Australia, called for the Contracting Parties

    "to make specific efforts to encourage active and informed participation of local and indigenous people at Ramsar listed sites and other wetlands and their catchments, and their direct involvement, through appropriate mechanisms, in wetland management."

This recommendation was developed in a technical session that allowed large consultation of the Contracting Parties and non-governmental organizations (please see the full text in Annex A). It did not "require" the Contracting Parties to ensure community involvement in wetland management (in spite of clear evidence and discussion of the benefits of such practices) but it specifically called upon four institutions - the IUCN, WWF, Kushiro International Wetlands Centre and Caddo Lake Institute - to develop a global study of community-based management practices. The study would lead towards the development of specific criteria and guidelines for presentation, discussion and adoption by the Ramsar parties at COP-7 (San José, Costa Rica, May 1999).

This project proposal is a direct response to such a recommendation.


2. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This project responds to recommendation 6.3 of the Ramsar COP, March 1996. The goal of this project is to further the conservation of wetlands in the Ramsar Convention by seeking the involvement of local and indigenous peoples in order to obtain the benefits described above.

To do so, the project will:

  • distil lessons learned and produce criteria and guidelines for involving local and indigenous people in wetland conservation and wise use (hereafter referred to as "wetland management");
  • engage in the above Ramsar parties and wetland management experts in forms and ways to foster, as much as possible, their effective and timely application of the lessons learned and adopted criteria and guidelines.

The products will include:

a process of discussion and consultation - including both dedicated workshops and extensive communication via mail, fax, phone and e-mail - by which Ramsar parties and wetland managers will be involved in distilling lessons and developing criteria and guidelines for their own use;

an action oriented text of reference for involving local and indigenous communities in wetland management (similar to the Ramsar Wise Use text), including a synthesis of field-based experience (successes and failures) and a set of criteria and guidelines, based on that synthesis, to assist developing concrete field initiatives. (the text will be produced in three languages)


Specifically, the project will undertake the following activities:

  • Solicit, gather and edit about 20 high quality case studies from seven Ramsar regions on the participation of local or indigenous peoples in wetland management.
  • Produce a preliminary report of cases and lessons for action (synthesis of field-based experience) to be considered initially by the Ramsar Standing Committee meeting of November 1997.
  • Hold a technical workshop in March 1998 to review the preliminary report and produce draft criteria and guidelines for involvement of local and indigenous peoples (to be put forward at Ramsar COP-7).
  • Solicit inputs from Ramsar parties and wetland management experts, and from the experts and representatives at the CBD meeting in Bratislava (May 1998);
  • Incorporate such inputs into a document integrating lessons learned and guidelines (to be submitted to the Ramsar Standing Committee meeting of November 1998).
  • Organise a technical session (workshop) at COP-7 (San José, Costa Rica, May 1999) for the Ramsar Parties to discuss cases, lessons, criteria and guidelines and develop and put forward for adoption a relevant Resolution.
  • Finalise a book detailing the lessons learned from the case studies and listing the eventually adopted criteria and guidelines for the involvement of local and indigenous people in the management of Ramsar and other significant wetlands (a ‘text of reference’ on the model of the existing report on the Wise Use project).
  • Translate and produce the text into the three official languages of Ramsar, for the Ramsar Bureau to diffuse, as appropriate.

3. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

The IUCN Wetlands Programme, WWF-International, the Kushiro International Wetlands Centre and the Caddo Lake Institute formed a partnership in 1996 to follow up on the Brisbane recommendation of the Ramsar parties on local and indigenous peoples involvement in wetland management. Representatives from the four organisations constitute this project’s Steering Committee (SC), which will oversee all aspects of project implementation. The project Steering Committee will also include the Ramsar Bureau as an ex officio member.

Due to the need for specific expertise on technical subjects, the proposed activities will be carried out by the IUCN Social Policy Group (IUCN-SPG) on behalf of the project partners. The IUCN Social Policy Group will have responsibility for day-to-day project management and operational aspects. It will remain in close consultation (via personal meetings and via e-mail) with the members of the Steering Committee for the whole duration of the project and will inform and involve them actively in the project on the occasion of two SC meetings in May 1998 and May 1999 (at the COP).


4. PLAN OF OPERATIONS

4.1 Solicit, gather and edit case studies

As a first step, IUCN-SPG will receive input from the Steering Committee on world wide experience with local and indigenous peoples’ involvement in wetland management, and on specific cases they would recommend to be analysed in depth. SPG will gather and synthesise the suggestions into a list of twenty cases, deemed representative "as a group" of the geographical, ecological and social variety of concern to Ramsar. A list of alternative cases will also be developed.

SPG will also produce a detailed framework for the case studies, providing explicit direction on the kinds of lessons that will be most useful in the preparation of the criteria and guidelines (e.g. lessons on stakeholder identification and criteria to distinguish among primary and secondary stakeholders; experiences with economic incentives and legal agreements; experiences with conflict management and enforcement mechanisms; etc.).

The lists of possible cases and the detailed framework for the studies will be submitted to the members of the Steering Committee prior to a meeting to be held in conjunction with the American Wetlands Conference in Alexandria, Virginia, May 7-9, 1997. During this meeting, a final list of case studies will be selected, and members of the Steering Committee will further discuss the framework for the research, adding and amending as needed for the final contract with the authors of the studies.

Following the May Steering Committee meeting, IUCN-SPG will identify and contract the authors of the case studies and send them the study framework. The studies will be completed and received back by SPG by October 1997. Each author will receive an honorarium of SFr. 1,000.

4.2 Produce a preliminary report on cases and lessons for action (synthesis of field-based experience)

The SPG will collect, edit and synthesise the twenty case studies and will prepare a preliminary compilation to be initially presented at the Ramsar Standing Committee in November 1997. The eventual comments of the Standing Committee will be incorporated in a report of cases and lessons for action which will synthesise field-based experience on involving local and indigenous people in the management of wetlands.

In close consultation with the members of the Steering Committee, SPG will further edit the ‘cases and lessons for action’ and evaluate them for guidance to elaborate criteria and guidelines on the involvement of local and indigenous peoples in wetland management.

4.3 Hold a technical workshop to produce draft criteria and guidelines for the Ramsar COP

The SPG will then contribute to a workshop to be held in March 1998 at the Kushiro International Wetlands Centre in Hokkaido, Japan. In particular, SPG will be responsible for the technical agenda and facilitation. It is expected that the Kushiro International Wetlands Center will be in charge of organising the workshop and raising the relevant funds.

Participants in the workshop will include the members of the Steering Committee, the authors of the case studies produced for the project and several experts in participatory processes and wetland management. According to available funding, the workshop will include presentations from all twenty case studies or from just the ones considered to be most significant and illustrative of important lessons for action (possibly twelve or six).

The invited authors of the case studies will be asked to present their findings but also, together with the Steering Committee and invited experts, to participate actively in the drafting of a specific set of criteria and guidelines for involvement of local and indigenous peoples in wetland management, to be presented at COP-7 (May 1999). The SPG will assist in accomplishing the above tasks.

4.4 Solict inputs from Ramsar parties and management experts and incorporate them into a document integrating lessons learned and guidelines

SPG will edit and synthesise the material produced at the workshop and develop a coherent document integrating both the lessons from the case studies and the produced criteria and guidelines. SPG will then solicit comments and inputs on the document from Ramsar parties and wetland management experts world-wide. This will be done via e-mail, phone and fax and via the presentation and discussion of the draft document at the meeting of the parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Bratislava (May 1998). Attention will be paid to taking in due account the lessons synthesised in existing relevant documents, such as the Guidelines for Ecosystem Management or the Social Sustainability volumes being developed by IUCN.

The comments and input will be incorporated in a revised version of the document of lessons and guidelines, which will be distributed for review at the Ramsar Standing Committee meeting of November 1998. On the basis of the document, the partners in this project will develop a resolution for COP-7 which will also be presented at the Ramsar Standing Committee. It is expected that after the meeting, final revisions will be made in the report and resolution, and that those will be circulated to the Contracting Parties prior to COP-7.

4.5 Organise and facilitate a technical session at COP-7

COP-7 will be held in San José (Costa Rica) in May 1999. In that occasion the project partners will organise a technical session to discuss, revise and recommend adoption of a resolution on the involvement of local and indigenous people in wetland management for global application by the Ramsar Parties. It is expected that the resolution will make reference to the developed set of criteria and guidelines and draw from the lessons learned in the case studies.

The session will be co-ordinated and facilitated by SPG and will be structured according to material to be presented and specific needs to discuss / elaborate / revise a resolution. One possible option would see a one full day session with four case studies in the morning (possibly Asia, Africa, Oceania, Latin America) and a general, summary paper, leading to presentation, discussion and adoption of a resolution in the afternoon. Professional facilitators will ensure that this is an active workshop, with significant participation by representatives of the Contracting Parties.

4.6 Produce a ‘text of reference’ for the Ramsar parties

Following COP-7, a final report will be produced. The document will detail the experiences and lessons learned from the case studies and listing the adopted criteria and guidelines for the involvement of local and indigenous people in the management of Ramsar and other significant wetlands. The resolution eventually agreed upon at the COP will also be included and illustrated in some detail. The document will be similar to the Ramsar report entitled Towards the Wise Use of Wetlands, and will constitute a ‘text of reference’ for the Ramsar parties on involving local and indigenous communities in wetland management.

The document will be published in sufficient quantities to circulate to all Contracting Parties, and to ministries of the environment, wetlands centres, and environmental NGOs involved in wetland conservation world-wide. Its main purpose will be to assist these entities in implementing the decisions made during the COP.


5. WORK SCHEDULE

Table 1. Time line of activities (Time table is contingent on project approval by February 1997)

Tasks 1997
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1. Rev suggestions for case studies from SC & produce a study framework xxx xxx
2. Produce list of potential cases and distribute to Steering Comm. xxx xxx
3. Steering Committee mtg: select case studies & revise framework xxx
4. Case Study authors identified and contacted xxx
5. Contracts sent out with detailed TOR for case studies xxx
6. Case studies received and compiled xxx
7. Compilation passed to Ramsar Standing Committee for comments xxx
8. Synthesise a report on "cases and lessons for action" xxx
1998
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1. Report on "cases and lessons for action" circulated to SC for comments xxx xxx
2. Technical workshop and Steering Comm. Meeting in Hokkaido xxx
3. Document of lessons and guidelines compiled, inputs solicited and incorporated from Ramsar parties, experts and CBD signatories xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx
4. Ramsar Standing Committee mtg: review of produced document xxx
5. Drafting of resolution by Steering Committee xxx
6. Organising technical workshop for Ramsar COP-7 xxx
1999
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1. Prior distribution of resolution to Contracting Parties xxx xxx xxx xxx
2. Ramsar COP-7: hold technical workshop on resolution xxx
3. Edit and lay out final 'text of reference' xxx
4. Translate text and produce it in three languages xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

6. BUDGET

Amounts in Swiss Francs.

Budget items 1997 1998 1999
Personnel
IUCN-SPG staff time and consultants to review experiences, prepare detailed technical framework for case studies, contact and contract c.s. authors, compile and technically review/edit a report of ‘cases and lessons for action’, incorporate various comments on the above, facilitate Hokkaido workshop, develop preliminary criteria and guidelines on the basis of workshop results, carry out rounds of editing in consultation with Ramsar parties and experts (including at CBD), organise and facilitate COP-7 technical session, follow translation and publication matters, provide technical advise throughout the process.

40,000

35,000

35,000

Honoria for case studies

20,000

. .
Reproduction and diffusion of report and preliminary guidelines prior to COP .

2,000

.
Workshop at COP-7, San José (including travel of invited presenters and facilitators) . .

40,000

Translation of final publication into French and Spanish (120 pages expected) . .

16,000

Design/layout of final publication . .

4,000

Printing about 1,000 copies of publication in each of the three languages . .

24,000

Communication (phone, fax, mail)

3,000

3,000

3,000

SUB-TOTAL:

63,000 40,000 121,000

Contingency (approx. 2%):

1,000

1,000

1,000

Overhead (13%):

9,000

5,000

16,000

TOTAL:

76,000

46,000

139,000

PROJECT TOTAL: SFr 261,000

NOTE: Travel, accommodation and logistics for meeting to review case studies and produce guidelines (Hokkaido, Japan) are not included in this budget as they are expected to be the direct responsibility of project partners. The final texts of reference will be distributed by the Ramsar Bureau.


7. REFERENCES

Barzetti, V. (ed.), Parks and Progress, IUCN and Inter American Development Bank, Washington D.C., 1993.

Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Collaborative Management of Protected Areas: Tailoring the Approach to the Context, IUCN, Gland (Switzerland), 1996.

Borrini-Feyerabend, G. (ed), Beyond Fences: Seeking Social Sustainability in Conservation, IUCN, Gland (Switzerland), 1997.

Davis T J (ed); Towards the Wise Use of Wetlands - report of the Ramsar Convention Wise Use Project; Ramsar Convention Bureau, October 1993.

Glowka, L., Burhenne-Guilmin, F. and H. Synge in collaboration with McNeely, J. and L. Guendling, A Guide to the Convention on Biological Diversity, IUCN, Gland (Switzerland) and Cambridge (UK), 1994.

McNeely, J.A. (ed.), Expanding Partnerships in Conservation, Island Press, Washington, D.C., 1995.

IUCN Social Policy Group, Involving Communities in Wetland Management, Keynote Paper for the Ramsar COP-6, Brisbane, Australia, March 1996.

Ramsar Convention Bureau, Wetlands and Biological Diversity: Cooperation between the Ramsar Convention and the Convention on Biological Diversity, October 1996.

West, P.C. and R.S. Brechin (eds.), Resident Peoples and National Parks, University of Arizona Press, Tucson (Arizona), 1991.

Western, D and R.M. Wright, Natural Connections, Island Press, Washington DC, 1994.

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