National Report of Zambia for COP7
National Report prepared for the 7th Meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971)
Implementation of the Ramsar Convention in general, and of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 1997-2002 in particular, during the period since the National Report was prepared in 1995 for Ramsar COP6
|Designated Ramsar Administrative Authority|
|Full name of the institution||Environmental Council of Zambia|
|Name and title of the head of the institution||Mr James S. Phiri, Director|
|Mailing address for the head of the institution||P.O. Box 35131, Lusaka, Zambia|
|Name and title (if different) of the designated contact officer for Ramsar Convention matters||Misozi Phiri (Ms), Acting Senior Inspector, Natural Resources Unit|
|Mailing address (if different) for the designated contact officer|
Zambia is party to the convention on wetlands (Ramsar Convention). The Government of the Republic of Zambia ratified the convention on 28 December 1991.
Zambia is endowed with abundant natural resources. Even though Zambia has a relatively weak economy it is rich in natural resources and biological diversity, and has a high potential for development in the same.
Among its natural resources are wetlands which are rich in biological diversity. The wetlands cover 13% of the total country's land surface of 750,000 km2. The country's national parks, which support a lot of wildlife, are located in the wetland areas. The wetlands support different economic activities which include game viewing, game hunting, ecotourism, fishing, irrigation, dams, small and large scale agricultural activities, salt mining and Hydro-Electric Power (HEP) generation.
The country has made significant efforts in improving the management of wetland areas. Two wetland areas, namely the Kafue flats and Bangweulu swamps, have been designated as wetlands of international importance or Ramsar sites. There is need for more wetlands to be designated as Ramsar sites in order to improve management, as Zambia has many other wetlands of importance.
This report presents Zambias efforts and plans (past and present) to sustainably manage and utilise the relatively abundant wetlands in the Southern African Region. The Government of the Republic of Zambia over the past years has learnt the importance of community participation in the management of wetlands resources. In order to get communities participation it is my strong conviction that educational or awareness creation or building programmes must be given priority in wetlands programs.
Zambia supports the aims of the Ramsar Convention and will support these aims and objectives within our own resource limitations.
Hon. Alfeyo Hambayi, MP
Minister of Environment and Natural Resources
This report has been prepared by the government of the republic of Zambia for submission to the 7th. meeting of the conference of the contracting parties to the convention on wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971). San Jose, 1999.
ARPT - Adaptive Research Planning Team
ECZ - Environmental Council of Zambia
GEF - Global Environment Facility
IIED - International Institute for Environment and Development
IUCN - World Conservation Union
NCSR - National Council for Scientific Research
NORAD - Norwegian Aid Agency
NPWS - National Parks and Wildlife Services
SADC Southern African Development Community
WWF - World Wide Fund for Nature
ZESCO - Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation Limited
ZNWP - Zambia National Wetlands Policy
ZWP -Zambia Wetlands Programme
Zambia is endowed with an abundance of natural resources and a rich biological diversity. It has been estimated that the country has more than 5,500 species of flowering plants, 233 species of mammals, 731 species of birds, 145 species of reptiles and over 200 fish species. As a country of 752,000 km2 , it has a total of 6.4 million hectares reserved as protected areas in form of 19 national parks which also serve as areas of abundant and rich biological diversity. Forests are also areas of great biological diversity. They cover 55-60% of the total land area of Zambia.
Zambia is considered among the wettest countries in Southern Africa. Approximately 13 % of the country is wetlands (See appendix).
Despite abundance in wetland ecosystems, only two sites have been designated as Ramsar Sites. These are Lochinvar/Blue Lagoon National Parks in the Kafue Flats and the Chikuni Game Management Area (GMA) in the Bangweulu Flats. There is need to designate more sites but such a move requires internal and external support.
Although Zambia does not have adequate financial resources, significant progress has been made towards the implementation of the objectives of the Ramsar Convention. There is need to supplement government efforts in the management of wetlands especially those programmes which are aimed at building and strengthening the proposed institutional set up of the wetlands unit at the Environnental Council of Zambia which recently has taken over the coordination of wetlands management.
Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 1
To progress towards universal membership of the Convention.
1.1 Describe any actions your government has taken (such as hosting regional or subregional meetings/consultations, working cooperatively with neighbouring countries on transfrontier wetland sites) to encourage others to join the Convention.
An initiative is being undertaken in trying to develop collaborative programmes with neighbouring countries in the conservation and sustainable use of the Wetlands. Zambia is implementing joint resource management programmes in shared Wetlands systems. In particular:
(a) The Upper Zambezi Management Project which is aimed at preparing a plan for the wise management of the Zambezi basin in the Western Province of Zambia. This is a joint programme between Zambia and Namibia.
(b) The Okavango Upper Zambezi International Tourism Development Initiative (OUZITI) and is advocating for the establishment of a Southern African Wildlife Sanctuary in the Wetlands associated with the source of the Zambezi basin. A collaborative programme involving five countries namely Zambia, Angola, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
(c) The Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity programme aimed at pollution control and other measures to conserve biodiversity of the lake. Four countries are involved namely Zambia, Burundi, Tanzania and Democratic Republic of Congo. This project is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to promote the conservation of Biodiversity and Control of Pollution in Lake Tanganyika.
(d) Zambia is also cooperating with Zimbabwe in developing regional programmes for the conservation and sustainable use of fish resources in Lake Kariba. Funding for this project has been provided by the Norwegian Aid Agency (NORAD).
(e) Under the Southern African Development Community (SADC) , Zambia is involved in the implementation of the Zambezi River Action Plan which involves wetlands management among other concerns.
(f) Recently, Zambia has become party to the SADC shared water courses protocol.
Regional / Sub-Regional Meetings / Consultations
- A workshop, was held in Siavonga in 1992 on Wetlands in Southern Africa".
- A regional workshop was held on Dambos hosted by SAREC/IIED/ARPT on "Sustainable Use of Dambos in Southern Africa 10 - 14th January 1993, Lusaka, Zambia
Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 2
To achieve the wise use of wetlands by implementing and further developing the Ramsar Wise Use Guidelines.
The Government of the Republic of Zambia is in the process of developing the Zambia Wetlands Programme (ZWP). This is an umbrella programme for the Development of Wetlands in Zambia.
The ZNWP has been partially developed and it will be completed once funds for mobilisation to collect information have been sought. The Wetlands Policy should be ready by the year 1999.
2.1 Has a National Wetland Policy/Strategy/Action Plan been developed, or is one being developed or planned for the near future? If so:
Despite Zambia being a party to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance since September 1991, it has been managing the Wetlands systems without a National Policy. But this is to change as soon as the policy document is completed.
Realising this drawback, the Country through Donor assistance has started developing a Wetlands Programme. This is anticipated to be achieved through mobilising, coordinating and expanding the interest, expertise and information systems developed on Wetland resources under past and current initiatives.
The ZWP objectives are in agreement with those of the country's Biodiversity Action Plans. It is infact a complementary initiative in trying to implement the National Biodiversity Action Plans. They both advocate for:
- the conservation of biological diversity
- the sustainable use of the components of biodiversity and
- the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilisation of the natural resources past and current initiatives.
The Zambia Wetlands Programme is an umbrella programme concerned in the development of Wetlands in Zambia. The programme aims at:
- Re-activating the functioning of the Zambia Wetlands Steering Committee.
- Initiating, motivating and cultivating the interest and potential, in government departments, private sector, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), local communities and other concerned parties, in sustainable management of wetland areas. Work on the ZWP has been progressing well.
There is a functional National Wetlands Steering Committee in Zambia with representative from various Government, Non-Governmental Organisation both local and international and higher institutions of learning i.e. University.
The following is the list for the Wetlands Steering Committee:
- The University of Zambia (UNZA): School of Natural Sciences, Biology Department; School of Agricultural Sciences, Soil Science Department; School of Education, Geography Department
- Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries (MAFF): Department of Field Services, Research Department, Department of Fisheries
- Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR): Policy and Planning Division, Forestry Department
- Ministry of Community Development and Social Services: Department of Community Development
- Ministry of Lands: Lands Department
- Ministry of Tourism: Department of National Parks and Wildlife Services
- Ministry of Local Government and Housing
- National Council for Scientific Research (NCSR)
- Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ)
- Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation Limited (ZESCO)
- World Conservation Union (IUCN)
- World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
- Zambia National Farmers Union (ZFNU)
- Zambia Alliance of Women (ZAW)
Once the ZWP has been completed it will provide a general framework on how wetlands will be developed in Zambia. Later on project proposals will be developed to address the specific needs of different wetlands areas. Under the ZWP the following areas have been studied in detail agriculture, forestry, land use, fisheries, socio-economy, legal issues, environmental education and ecology. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) will be used to digitise some of the information onto the maps.
a. What are/will be its main features?
b. Was it, or is it, intended that the Policy/Strategy/Action Plan be adopted by the whole of Government, the Minister responsible for Ramsar matters or through some other process. Please describe.
Since all government policies are passed by cabinet, it ensures that the policy has all the necessary political and government support at the highest level. The ZNWP will therefore be widely accepted by all stakeholders. The Government Ministries which are directly involved in the management of wetlands are:
- Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR)
- Ministry of Tourism (MOT)
- Ministry of Water and Energy Development (MEWD)
- Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (MAFF)
- Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH)
- Ministry of Community Development
- Ministry of Health (MOH)
- Ministry of Education (MOE)
The Government intention in terms of natural resource management is the integrated management approach, where key relevant institutions including local communities will implement the programme.
The ECZ which has been mandated to conserve and protect the Natural Resources and the environment in general. It coordinates and spearheads the implementation of Ramsar convention matters.
c. How does it relate/will it relate to other national environmental/ conservation planning initiatives (e.g., National Environmental Action Plans, National Biodiversity Action Plans, National Conservation Strategies)?
The Zambia National Wetlands Policy (ZNWP) will relate to the other national environmental / conservation planning initiatives e.g. National Environmental Action Plans (NEAP), National Biodiversity Action Plans (NBAP), National Conservation Strategies (NCS), The Agricultural Sector Investment Programme (ASIP) and the Zambia Wildlife Policy, by applying the principles of the specific plans and apply them to wetland areas. The ZNWP will cover the different resources of Wetlands areas and their utilisation and development namely forestry, agriculture, water, fisheries, wildlife, ecology, agriculture, tourism, mining and other industrial activities Due to differences in size, resource richness and also socio-cultural and socio-economic factors, the ZNWP will be followed up with specific plans applicable to particular wetland.
In Zambia, the National Conservation Strategy (NCS) was followed up by the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP). The NEAP encompasses:
- Different institutions involved in environmental management and Environmental legislation.
- Environmental and Economic Development
- Renewable natural resources which covers, water, forest, wildlife, fisheries.
- Human population
- Energy resources
- Environmental education and
- Human settlements.
All the above mentioned areas impact on wetland areas
(i) National Biodiversity Action Plans.
The National Biodiversity Action Plan is still under preparation in Zambia. Studies are now being carried out with the assistance of IUCN on the same plan. The ZNWP will relate to the ZBAP because even if different sectors of the wetlands e.g. Fisheries, wildlife, forestry, water, ecology and socio-economics will be addressed separately in the ZNWP the wetlands are areas of great biological diversity with inter and intra habitat variation for flora and fauna in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems within wetlands areas.
(ii) Other Government Policies and Programmes which the ZWP will relate to in ensuring improvement and sustainable development of wetlands are:
- The Zambia Forestry Action Programme (ZFAP)
- National Energy Policy
- Water Policy
- Investment Policy especially in the area of tourism
- National Agriculture Policy
- Zambia Population Policy
- Wildlife Policy
- Tourism Policy
2.2 If a policy is in place, how much progress has been made in its implementation, and what are the major difficulties being encountered in doing so?
The Zambia National Wetlands Policy is not yet in place and therefore implementation has not yet started (Please refer to 2.1)
2.3 If a Policy/Strategy/Action Plan is in place, is the responsibility for implementing it with :
a. a single Government Ministry,
b. a committee drawn from several Ministries, or
c. a cross-sectoral committee?
Once the ZNWP and the ZWP are completed, the responsibility for implementing it will be with a cross-sectoral committee which is coordinated by the ECZ.
There is a Wetlands Steering Committee which has a cross sectoral representation. The Wetlands Steering Committee is coordinated by the ECZ and is responsible for the implementation of programmes relating to wetlands management. The Zambia Steering Committee currently consists of fifteen (15) institutions which are represented by nineteen (19) participants. This is so because some of the institutions are represented by more than one department. The following are the institutions currently on the Zambia Wetlands Steering Committee.:
A. GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES
- Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR): Planning and Information Department (PID), Forestry Department
- Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (MAFF): Department of Field Services, Research Department, Department of Fisheries
- Ministry of Lands: Lands Department
- Ministry of Community Development and Social Services: Department of Community Development
- Ministry of Local Government and Housing
- Ministry of Tourism: Department of National Parks and Wildlife Services (NPWS)
B. HIGHER INSTITUTION OF LEARNING
- The University of Zambia (UNZA)
C. QUASI - GOVERNMENT ORGANISATION
- Environmental Council of Zambia
- National Council for Scientific Research
D. PARASTATAL COMPANY
- Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO)
E. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGOs)
i. International NGOs
- World Conservation Union (IUCN)
- World-wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
ii. National (local) NGOs
- Environmental Conservation Association of Zambia (ECAZ)
- Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Society of Zambia (formerly, Wildlife Society of Zambia)
- Zambia Womens Alliance (ZAW)
2.4 For countries with Federal systems of Government, are there Wetland Policies/Strategies/Plans in place, being developed or planned for the provincial/state or regional levels of Government? Yes/No If yes, please give details.
There is no federal system of Government in Zambia. Zambia is divided into nine (9) provinces and the programmes and policies made apply to all the provinces. For decision making, Zambia follows a decentralised system of governance with representation at all levels from district, province finally national level. The Zambia Wetlands Steering Committee is divided into four Task Forces covering the area of land used and agriculture fisheries and water, forestry and rangeland and socio-economic and legal components.
2.5 Has a review of legislation and practices which impact on wetlands been carried out, and if so, has this resulted in any changes which assist with implementation of the Ramsar Convention? Please describe these.
The Department of National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) is mandated through an ACT of Parliament to manage all wildlife resources in the country including wetlands as they fall in the NPWS protected areas. Presently, the National Parks and Wildlife Act No: 10 , of 1991, is in effect. The inadequacy of this legislation is that it only allows the Department to manage the animals but not the habitats and this has created a lot of problems. However, a new Act No: 12 of 1998 , which will lead to the establishment of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), has been passed in Parliament which also addresses the problems of the resource and the habitat in the wildlife estates. This reviewed legislation will be in effect on the 1st of January 1999.
A review of legislation and practices which impact on wetlands has been carried out, in Zambia. Reviews of legislation which impact on wetlands have been tackled from different angles. General reviews has been carried out under natural resources management but there are also specific legislation review which relate to wetlands management. These reviews have been carried out under the Environment Support Programme, the Zambia Wetlands Programme and also in specific wetlands areas such as Upper Zambezi Wetlands and Natural Resources Management Programme. A study done under the auspices of the Environmental Support Programme (ESP), looked at the legal framework and institutional capacity of various natural resources legislation in Zambia (Chinene et al. after Mudenda 1997). The study shows that Zambia lacks an environmental policy out of which can be formed suitable environmental legislation. Most of the current legislation dates back to the colonial era and is still sectoral based and defined. Attempts have been made by the government to involve the participation of people in developing a National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) which would give policy direction and harmonise the whole environmental sector. The study found that weaknesses in the current system had to do with the legislation itself, its implementation and enforcement.
However, it is worth noting that most of the legislation in Zambia is undergoing review - notable are the legislations on Wildlife, Forestry, Lands and on Fisheries. The following pieces of environmental legislation are significant to the conservation of natural resources and wetlands:
Principle Environmental Law
Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act No: 12 of 1990, is the principle Act, which created the Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ) which is a coordinatory, advisory, regulatory and enforcement body. The ECZ coordinates all wetlands management related activities through its Natural Resources Unit.
In 1990, the Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Act repealed most of the provisions of the Natural Resources Conservation Act, particularly the sections establishing the Natural Resources Advisory Board and Specifying its functions. The protection of wetlands under the provisions of the natural resources Act outlined above could be achieved through:
(i). Conservation orders designating land uses for various purposes within and adjunct to wetland areas; and
(ii). creating wetland areas as ecologically sensitive areas under conservation plans.
The resource specific legislation are:
- Forestry Act, Cap 311
- Water Act, Cap 312
- Fisheries Act, Cap 313
- National Parks and Wildlife Act, No: Cap 201
- Mines and Minerals Act; No: 31 of 1995
- Lands Act, No: 33 of 1995
As mentioned earlier, some of the legislations are being amended to cater for community participation in the conservation and management of resources. The Acts which are being reviewed or have recently been reviewed are the Fisheries, Forestry, Water, National Parks and Wildlife and the Lands Act.
The following pieces of legislation have been considered in little more detail - the Natural Resources, Wildlife and Forestry Acts as they relate to wetlands management.
(a)Natural Resources Conservation Act, Cap 315
This law was enacted to make provision for establishment of a natural resources advisory board. It prescribes the powers, functions and duties of the Advisory board; provides for the Ministers powers to make order for conservation of natural resources, and for appointment of provincial and district natural resources committees. It also provides for the preparation of conservation plans and for establishment of fire authorities. It defines natural resources as the soils, water, plant life and vegetation and vegetable products of the soil, the animal life and fauna including mammals, birds, reptiles fish, insects and natural products derived from them. It empowers the Minister to declare by statutory notice such other things to be natural resources. The provisions of the Natural Resources Conservation Act on Conservation orders and plans could be used as a powerful tool for conserving wetlands and species dependent on wetlands habitat.
(b) The National Parks and Wildlife Act Cap. 201
The National Parks and Wildlife Act provides for the establishment, control and management of National Parks and Game Management Areas.
The Act also provides for public participation through the establishment of integrated resource management committees comprising local committees, for the management of a National Park or Game Management Area. The objectives of these community based wildlife conservation arrangements are to promote and develop an integrated approach to the management of human and natural resources in a National Park or Game Management Area. The local community will benefit from the revenues payable under the Act from licences and services rendered for the utilisation of wildlife resources. The revenues will be placed in a fund established by the local communities for use by the community and management of natural resources in the area.
The most renowned of these community based wildlife conservation schemes are the Administrative Management Design (ADMADE) and the Luangwa Integrated Resource Development Project (LIRDP) in Game Management Areas.
The National Parks and Wildlife Act is the regulation which provides for the declaration of bird sanctuaries and for the control of entry into and regulation of activities of any person within any such bird santuary. The provisions of the National Parks and Wildlife Act to create bird sanctuaries could be used to specifically protect wetlands. In addition, the provisions on protecting certain types of species of flora and fauna could protect the species dependant on wetlands as habitat.
(c) The Forest Act.
The Forest Act provides for the establishment and management of National and local Forests; to conserve and protect forests and trees and to provide for the licensing and sale of forest produce. The Forest Act does not provide for public or community participation in management of National Forests. However, in local forests the Minister is empowered to assign the control and management of any local forest to any other person or authority subject to such conditions as the Minister may think fit.
The Forest Act does not specifically address wetlands ecosystems.
The Forest Act is currently undergoing review with the aim of repealing it so as to make provision for community participation. At this stage consideration should be given to wetland forest.
The review of legislation and practices which impact on wetlands which have been carried out under the ESP, ZWP and IUCN has resulted in changes which will assist in the implementation of the Ramsar Convention.
Under the ESP, the recommendations of the NEAP will be implemented. The NEAP as indicated earlier caters for the management of natural resources which are available in wetlands areas. The recommendations which were made under the ZWP will be implemented in the next phase of the programme i.e. when development programmes will be made for the major wetland areas tailored according to their specific needs. The recommendation which were made by IUCN are engulfed in the ZWP. The ZWP deals the sustainable management of wetlands areas while addressing the fields of Agriculture, Forestry, Wildlife, Land use, Education and Public Awareness, socio-economy, Fisheries and Geographic Information System (GIS).
2.6 Describe the efforts made in your country to have wetlands considered in integrated land/water and coastal zone planning and management processes at the following levels:
Recognising the complexity and cross-sectoral nature of conserving biodiversity, the planning and management of the Wetlands has been integrated with other resources. This has been done by preparing and adopting strategies and actions like the National Environment Action Plan (NEAP), Environment Support Programme (ESP), Zambia Forest Action Plan (ZFAP) and the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP). The same initiatives are also being done at provincial and local level. This approach ensures that biodiversity conservation and management involves cross sectoral institutions.
2.7 Have there been any publications produced, or practices documented, which could assist other countries to promote and improve the application of the Ramsar Wise Use of Wetlands Guidelines? Yes/No If Yes, please provide details and copies.
Zambia is a land locked country which is surrounded by eight (8) countries in Southern Africa. Zambia has nine (9) provinces but no federal system of government. The major water sources are wetlands of different types, rivers and lakes. Efforts have been made in Zambia to have integrated land/water management process at the national level. This is in form of a holistic management of wetland resources which has been planed under the ZWP specific needs for specific wetlands areas will be addressed during the implementation process.
A publication entitled "Status of Wetlands in Zambia" was published in 1994 by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources in conjunction with the Environmental Council of Zambia. This publication covers all the major wetlands in Zambia namely: The Kafue Flats, Bangweulu Swamps, Barotse plains, Lukanga Swamps, Mweru-wa-ntipa and Luapula-Mweru swamps. Theres also publication on "Managing the Kafue flats" and "Managing the Bangweulu swamps". Although most of the wetlands may qualify as Ramsar sites, only the Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar in the Kafue flats and Chikuni in the Bangweulu swamps are designated Ramsar sites.
There is also a video publication on good management of wetlands under the Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF).
These publications or documents could assist other countries to promote and improve the application of the Ramsar wise use of Wetlands Guidelines.
2.8 Noting COP6 Recommendation 6.14 relating to toxic chemicals and pollution, please advise of the actions taken since then "to remedy and to prevent pollution impacts affecting Ramsar sites and other wetlands" (Operative paragraph 9).
The Government of the Republic of Zambia has put in place measures to minimise pollution in general. However, these measures also apply to Ramsar sites and other wetland areas.
Theres an umbrella legislation on Environmental Protection and Pollution Control called the "Environmental Protection and Pollution Control (EPPC) Act No: 12 of 1990". The EPPC Act has been followed up by regulations which aims at reducing pollution. These are:
- Statutory Instrument No: 71 of 1993. The Waste Management (Licensing of Transporters of wastes and waste disposal sites) Regulations, 1993.
- Statutory instrument No: 72 of 1993. The Water Pollution Control (Effluent and waste water) Regulations, 1993.
- Statutory Instrument No: 20 of 1994. The Pesticides and Toxic Substances Regulations, 1994.
- Statutory Instrument No: 141 of 1996. The Air Pollution Control (Licensing and Emissions Standards) Regulations, 1996.
- Statutory Instrument No: 28 of 1997. The Environmental Impact Regulations, 1997.
The above mentioned regulations will be instrumental in the remedy and prevention of pollution impacts affecting Ramsar sites and other wetlands. The statutory Instrument No: 20 of 1994: The Pesticides and Toxic Substances Regulations specifically addresses the issue of toxic chemicals. Of the Ramsar sites and the wetlands as a whole, the wetland which is most threatened by toxic chemicals and pollution in Zambia are the Kafue flats where the Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar National Parks which are Ramsar sites are located. The Kafue flats are particularly vulnerable to pollution because of the location of the Kafue river which is centrally located within the country. Not only that, theres a concentration of cities and towns running parallel the Kafue river over a very long stretch. Within the cities and towns are industries which discharge effluent into the Kafue river. The Kafue river is contaminated with heavy metals and agro-chemicals.
Due to eutrophication, there is a proliferation of Eicchornia Crassipes coded Kafue Weed which has infested parts of the Kafue flats. Efforts are being made through cleaner production techniques to reduce pollutants in the effluent therefore minimise on eutrophication.
In order to minimise on the chemical pollution, control is been practised from the source i.e. control is mainly targeted at the importers and distributors of chemicals. This is because Zambia is a net importer of chemicals like many other developing nations. Importers and distributors of toxic chemicals are expected to provide a set of information which covers the chemical characteristics including toxicity, form of chemical and quantities to be imported. Toxicity to flora and fauna (e.g. phytotoxicity and hazard to wildlife) and knowledge of safe use and disposal of the toxic chemicals. Registration of the pesticides and toxic chemicals is done with the Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ) only chemicals which are not highly hazardous or if they are, there are specific use and that they will be well handled, are registered.
The Government of the Republic of Zambia has also embarked on cross-border control of pesticides and toxic chemicals. This is done by the ECZ hand-in-hand with the Customs Officials. Education and Public awareness of the end-user is one of the biggest challenge in reducing toxic chemicals pollution and pollution in general.
2.9 Describe what steps have been taken to incorporate wetland economic valuation techniques into natural resource planning and assessment actions.
This is being done with the assistance of IUCN Regional Office for Southern Africa (IUCN -ROSA). IUCN-ROSA is assisting with the training of environmental economists who will be involved among others with the economic valuation of wetlands.
In addition, the IUCN - ROSA under the Zambezi Basin Wetlands Conservation and Resource Utilisation Programme (ZBWCRUP), have a component on economic evaluation of the Zambezi Basin Wetlands part of which are located in the western part of Zambia.
2.10 Is Environmental Impact Assessment for actions potentially impacting on wetlands required under legislation in your country? Yes/No
Environmental Impact Assessment for actions potentially impacting on wetlands is required under legislation in Zambia, under the Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations of 1997. The EIA regulations cover all major development activities including those in wetland areas. Due to the high biological diversity of the wetland areas, the major development activities are tourism which is wildlife oriented.
Since 1997, when Zambia developed a legislation on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) all developments to be undertaken in any Protected Area have to undergo an EIA process. This EIA is done at the planning stage of any development to avoid or mitigate the possible impacts of the proposed development.
Overall projects to be under taken in wetlands areas need an EIA. Wetlands are classified as environmental sensitive areas under EIA regulations because they are a unique ecosystem.
2.11 Is wetland restoration and rehabilitation considered a priority in your country? Yes/No. If Yes, describe the actions that have been taken to identify wetlands in need of these actions and to mobilise resources for restoration or rehabilitation.
Wetland restoration and rehabilitation is considered a priority in Zambia.
The Wetlands which have been adversely affected anthropogenically is the Kafue flats and studies are now being carried out by ECZ to determine the nutrient load of the Kafue river. Efforts have been made to encourage industry to use Cleaner Production Techniques in order to reduce on pollutants in the effluents. This is done together with the Zambia Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ZACCI). Major companies which are in Kafue town which are located along the Kafue river, which passes through the Kafue flats, are being advised on how to employ Cleaner Production techniques.
Admittedly, there are limited financial resources to carry out all the restoration and rehabilitation work required in the Kafue flats. Financial resources are being sought for this purpose.
2.12 Describe what actions have been taken to "encourage active and informed participation of local communities, including indigenous people, and in particular women, in the conservation and wise use of wetlands." (refer to Actions 2.7.1-4 in the Strategic Plan).
National Actions Plans e.g. NEAP, BSAP, ESP etc. have been taken to encourage the participation of local communities or indigenous people in the conservation and wise use of wetlands. Women are also involved in the management of wetlands. Deliberate efforts have been taken to involve women especially in Wetland areas where there are community based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) projects. In Zambia, some programmes aimed at involving and empowering the local communities in the conservation and sustainable use of the Wetlands has already been initiated. One of the programmes is called ADMADE (Administrative Management Design for GMAs). This works on the principle that benefits generated from the use of the resources in that area is ploughed back in the management of the resource while the 35% is given to the community for development initiatives. The Zambezi Basin Project, by IUCN, which is being carried out in the Barotse plains includes women activities.
In addition, the Barotse plains have two CBNRM projects namely:
- The Upper Zambezi Wetlands and Natural Resources management Programme and;
- The Zambezi Basin Wetlands Conservation and Resource Utilisation Project.
The above two projects are being sponsored by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Women are involved in subsistence farming, handicrafts and selling of fish. Women also have indigenous knowledge in the management of agricultural and forest systems and preservation of the plant genetic material for many indigenous/local food crops.
However, a lot more has to be done to involve women in the management of wetlands.
2.13 Describe what actions have been taken to "encourage involvement of the private sector in the conservation and wise use of wetlands" (refer to Actions 2.8.1-4 in the Strategic Plan). Has this included a review of fiscal measures (taxation arrangements, etc.) to identify and remove disincentives and introduce incentives for wetlands conservation and wise use? Yes/No If yes, please provide details.
The private sector are involved in the Conservation and wise use of wetlands implicitly. Private sector are involved in the drawing of management plans for the National Parks and Game Management Areas especially when their business falls within these areas. Most of the businessmen involved in the preparation of management plans are involved in the tourism businesses. The involvement of the private sector does not extend to funding the management of resources in wetland areas. The other kind of business which is prominent in most wetland areas is fishing and selling of fish. The private sector in the fishing industry is involved in the conservation and wise use of wetlands by observing the fish ban. One of the big fish industries which sells fish in the city of Lusaka called "Chani Fisheries" declared on the public media that they shall observe the fish ban period. This is not to say that all the private sector involved in fishing do not break the law. However, it is important to note that private firms understand that they should conserve and use the resources wisely in wetlands areas.
Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 3
To raise awareness of wetland values and functions throughout the world and at all levels
3.1 Is there a government-run national programme for Education and Public Awareness in your country which focuses on, or includes, wetlands? Yes/No? If yes, what are the priority actions under this programme and who are the target groups? (Refer also to question 9.4)
Zambia has a government programme for Environmental Education and Public Awareness and this includes wetlands. The Government of the Republic of Zambia has the Environmental Support Programme (ESP) which covers the following components:
- Environmental Education and Public Awareness.
- Environmental Information Systems.
- Pilot Environmental Fund
- Community Environmental Management.
- Institution and Capacity Building.
Issues of Wetlands will be covered under the Environmental Education and Public Awareness programme. The Government of the Republic of Zambia has recently embarked upon an Environmental Support Programme (ESP) which represents the first phase of a long term commitment to stimulating widespread interest and investment in environmental and natural resources management within the framework of economic growth. The ESP has several closely inter-linked and mutually reimpairing investment components, one of which is the Environmental Education and Public Awareness, (EPPA). The EPPA is coordinated from the Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ), in close collaboration with the Curriculum Development Centre (CDC) of the Ministry of Education, is designed to raise public awareness on environmental issues through media support, modification of selected school curricula and teacher training programmes and provision of support for community initiatives in environmental education.
The EPPA component has the following objectives:
- To strengthen the Education and Communication unit at the Environmental Council of Zambia.
- To review and modify the curriculum of formal education system.
- To conduct training and sensitisation of the media.
- To conduct community awareness surveys.
- To provide support to environmental programmes in the district.
Under the EPPA component, the Education and Communications unit at ECZ will be expected to:
- Produce and disseminate Environmental Education Materials.
- Provide resources on Environmental Education.
- Organise and coordinate exhibits, performing arts workshops and seminars for the purpose of disseminating environmental information.
- liaise with learning institutions on the development and implementation of environmental education curriculum.
- Promote networking with environmental education programmes.
- coordinate community based activities in formulating and implementing strategies aimed at promoting sustainable resource use and sound environmental management.
- coordinate activities aimed at disseminating information through electronic media such as radio, video, and television for education and awareness purposes.
- Promoting public awareness
- Production of newsletter
- Media and public relations.
- Production of corporate materials
The EPPA covers a wide range of the target groups ranging from institutions of learning, professionals and non-professionals, the general public and local communities in all regions including wetland areas.
3.2 Describe the steps taken to have wetlands issues and Ramsars Wise Use principles included as part of the curricula of educational institutions. Has this been at all levels of education (primary, secondary, tertiary and adult)? Please give details.
Wetland issues have not been explicitly included in the educational curricula. Nonetheless issues of pollution, deforestation, soil erosion are already in the curricula.
Principles on wetlands are not yet included as part of the curricula of educational institutions.
Plans are underway to include the wetlands issues and Ramsar wise use principles in the curricula of educational institutions. This will be done under the ECZs Education and Public Awareness programme of the Environmental Sector Support Programme (ESP) and also under the Information, Communication and Public Awareness Programme of the Zambia Wetlands Programme.
In addition to the above a radio programme on wetland issues and Ramsar wise use was recorded and is being broadcast on the public media for the members of the public. Moreover, the Government of the Republic of Zambia is seeking funds for this purpose.
Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 4
To reinforce the capacity of institutions in each Contracting Party to achieve conservation and wise use of wetlands.
4.1 Describe the mechanisms in place, or being introduced, to increase cooperation between the various institutions responsible for actions which can have an impact on the conservation and wise use of wetlands. If one of the mechanisms is a National Ramsar/Wetlands Committee, please describe its composition, functions and modus operandi.
The mechanism is in place to increase cooperation between various institutions responsible for action which can have an impact on the conservation and wise use of wetlands, by the Government of the Republic of Zambia through the Environmental Council of Zambia is the formation of the Zambia Wetlands Steering Committee. The ultimate objective is the setting up of a department under the ECZ that will be responsible for wetlands. This objective unfortunately still eludes Zambia. There is need for support so that the country can quickly move to sustainably manage the wetlands.
The composition of the Zambia Wetlands Task Force is given in this report under sections 2.1 (ii) and 2.3. The functions of the Zambia Wetlands Steering Committee is to:
- encourage institutional cooperation among different sectors involved in wetlands conservation and wise use.
- provide an advisory role on the management of wetlands in Zambia.
- assess and monitor the use of wetlands in Zambia, using the Ramsar wise use principles.
- coordinate, stimulate, and disseminate good management of wetlands in the various sectors of the economy in Zambia.
The Zambia Wetlands Steering Committee is still very young and does not have a standard period of meeting and reporting the activities but it is intended that it will meet quarterly.
The wise management of the Wetlands can only be achieved through processes of an integrated approach. This will result in reduced conflicts through involvement of the key stakeholders in and around the Wetlands. During the development of the ZWP a participatory approach involving the key players has been used so as to broaden the scope and increase cooperation amongst the various institutions responsible for actions that impact on the conservation and wise use of Wetlands.
4.2 Of the following, indicate which have been undertaken:
a. a review to identify the training needs of institutions and individuals concerned with the conservation and wise use of wetlands Yes/No? If yes, please indicate the major findings of the review.
The review to identify training needs of institutions concerned with conservation and use of wetlands has not been carried out yet. However, the Zambia Wetlands Steering Committee has been divided into four task forces namely Legal and Socio-economics, Ecology and Rangeland, Land Use and Water.
b. a review to identify training opportunities for these people both within your country and in other countries. Yes/No?
Training will be provided according to the training needs of different task forces and their subject matter.
c. the development of training modules or a training programme specifically for wetland managers. If yes, please give details.
Funds are being sought for the development of training modules or a training programme specifically for wetland managers.
d. people from your country have gained wetland-related training either within or outside the country. Yes/No? If yes, please give details.
Some Zambians have gained wetlands related training courses outside the country but this has been limited in scope and usually focused on a problem related single resource and not the whole wetland.
(i) The Environmental Council of Zambia:
- Three officers have received training on aquatic weeds in Brisbane, Australia.
- One officer has received training in aquatic plants in the Okavango swamps, Botswana.
- One officer has received training in Wetlands Management in the Netherlands.
(ii) The Department of National Parks and Wildlife Service;
- Four Wildlife Biologists who have been working in Wetland areas are professionally trained in Planning and Management of Wetlands resources. These include; resource monitoring, research initiatives, aerial and ground survey methodologies and extension work involving local community participation in Wildlife management, in wetland areas.
Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 5
To ensure the conservation of all sites included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar List).
5.1 Of the Ramsar sites in your country, how many have formal management plans:
a. being prepared?
b. fully prepared?
c. being implemented?
Please indicate in the attached table of Ramsar sites which sites these are and what category they fall into.
Of the two Ramsar sites, Bangweulu Swamps and Kafue Flats, none has a formal management plan in their management. A Zambia Wetlands Programme is being formulated which will be a guiding tool for the Conservation and wise use of the resources and the habitats in the Wetlands. Currently the Zambia Wetlands Programme is in a draft form and will be published soon (before the end of year 1998).
5.2 Of the management plans referred to above, which ones have included a monitoring scheme or programme to allow changes in ecological character to be detected? Please indicate this in the attached table of Ramsar sites also.
The proposed Zambia Wetlands Programme will provide some of the following:
- A base for constant feedback and monitoring of resource conditions and the implementation of different programme actions to ensure performance evaluation of individual programmes. This will improve the management of wetlands.
- A frame work for addressing issues in the Wetlands which will affect natural resource use by working together with other natural resource management agencies and interested stakeholders.
- (Protection of the most sensitive resources and habitats, in wetland areas.
- A review of the plan to allow for changes in ecological characters due to climatic changes and human induced changes.
5.3 Has there been a change in the ecological character (either positive or negative) at any of your Ramsar sites or is this likely to occur in the near future? Yes/No. If Yes, please give details.
5.4 In the case of Montreux Record Ramsar sites where the Management Guidance Procedure has been applied, what is the status of the implementation of the MGP report recommendations? What is the expected time-frame for removing the site from the Montreux Record?
5.5 For those countries referred to in COP6 Recommendations 6.17.1-4, "Ramsar sites in the Territories of Specific Contracting Parties", please provide advice on the actions that have been taken in response to the issues raised at that time.
Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 6
To designate for the Ramsar List those wetlands which meet the Conventions criteria, especially wetland types still under-represented in the List and transfrontier wetlands.
6.1 Has a national inventory of wetlands been prepared for your country? Yes/No.
If no, are there plans for this to be done? Yes/No.
Where a national inventory exists please provide details of when it was finalised, where it is kept and what information it contains.
Prior to the preparation of the draft Zambia Wetlands Programme for Zambia, a national inventory on the wetlands and their resources was undertaken to assess their status. The information is contained in a publication called Status of the Wetlands in Zambia (1994). The preparation of the ZWP is being coordinated by the Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ) a statutory body in the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR) which is acting as a secretariat for the ZWP.
The inventory contains the following information;
(a) The status, use and management of natural resources in the Wetland areas in Zambia.
(b) An evaluation of the resource species composition, abundance and distribution.
(c) Examining the extent and trend in the exploitation of natural resources in the Wetlands areas.
(d) Identifying major threats to conservation of Wetland areas and identifying areas or species which are critically threatened.
(e) Results of interviews and consultations with the local communities in and around wetland areas and other government institutions on the status, use and management of the resources.
(f) Examining the level of involvement by the local people in the management of the natural resources.
(g) Examining ways through which to simulate and encourage active and informed participation of Wetlands communities in the conservation and wise use of Wetlands resources.
(h) Examining ways through which to disseminate natural resource information and awareness materials to the local communities.
(i) Examining the socio-economic implications of over utilisation of the resources at both local and national levels with regards to consumptive and non consumptive use.
6.2 Does there exist a list or directory of "important" wetlands for your country or region? Yes/No. If yes, please provide details of when it was finalised, where it is kept, what criteria for "important" were used, and the types of information it contains.
A directory on wetlands of Zambia was completed in 1994 in a publication entitled the Status of Wetlands in Zambia. Copies of the publication can be obtained from the Environmental Council of Zambia. The criteria which were used for importance of wetlands were based on the natural functions e.g. ground water recharge/discharge, flood control, water filters etc. and use functions e.g. water transport, tourism, HEP, fisheries, wildlife, agriculture etc.
6.3 If it is known, please provide an estimate of the area of wetlands in your country at present and any information on rates of loss or conversion to other activities. If this information is available, please indicate what definition of "wetland" was used.
Zambia covers a land area of 760 000 km2 of which 13% of this are wetlands. This includes dambos 7%. Information on the rates of loss or conversions to other activities in wetland areas is not fully known because few wetland areas have been studied. There is urgent need now to undertake such a study but this is constrained by limited capacity in terms of institutional as well as financial .
In the Zambian context wetlands can be described as areas of swamp (marsh) either natural or artificial, permanent or temporary with water that is static or flowing. This includes dambos. Wetlands areas are highly productive ecosystems providing many benefits on which people depend for their survival.
6.4 Have any actions been taken in response to the COP6 Resolutions and Recommendations that Contracting Parties should give priority to listing Wetlands of International Importance which:
a. meet the criteria for fish habitat (Resolution VI.2),
b. meet the 1% criterion for waterbird populations using data provided by the International Waterfowl Census (Resolution VI.4),
c. are subterranean karst or cave wetland systems (Resolution VI.5),
d. are peatland ecosystems (Recommendation 6.1)
e. are coral reefs and associated systems (Recommendation 6.7)
f. are under-represented wetland types (which apart from d. and e. above include mangroves and sea grass beds) (Strategic Plan Action 6.2.3)
6.5 If your government indicated at COP6 that it would be proceeding to list further specific sites, please advise of the status of this action.
Due to institutional and resources limitations the resolutions of the COP 6 on wetlands of international importance have not been acted upon.
Zambia would like include Liuwa, Lukanga, Busanga, Mweru-wa-ntipa, Luapula-Mweru, Lower Zambezi, Luangwa wetlands as possible Ramsar Sites:
6.6 Please advise which of the sites included in the Ramsar List from your country are transfrontier wetlands (Refer also to 7.1).
6.7 Describe any plans, or actions being taken for further transfrontier sites to be listed (Refer also to 7.1).
Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 7
To mobilise international cooperation and financial assistance for wetland conservation and wise use in collaboration with other conventions and agencies, both governmental and non-governmental.
7.1 Briefly describe any bilateral or multilateral activities that have been taken, are under way, or are planned for the management of transfrontier wetlands or their watersheds/catchments (Refer also to 6.6 and 6.7).
The Actions taken by Zambia in executing bilateral or multilateral management of transfrontier Wetlands are as indicated under general objective 1.0
7.2 Do you have Ramsar sites that are "twinned" with others, either nationally or internationally? Yes/No. If yes, please give details.
Recently through the Ramsar Secretariat, some twinning arrangements on the management of one of the Ramsar sites (The Lochinvar Sanctuary) are being made. The Zambian institution involved is the Wildlife Conservation and Environmental Society of Zambia which will work closely with an institute in Sri-Lanka which operates closely with the Sri-Lankan IUCN Country Office.
7.3 Where your country is also a signatory of any of the following Conventions, describe what mechanism(s) exist to assist regular dialogue and cooperative actions between the personnel responsible for their implementation and the Ramsar Administrative Authority:
a. Convention on Biological Diversity
b. Framework Convention on Climate Change
c. Convention to Combat Desertification
d. Convention on Migratory Species
e. World Heritage Convention
Zambia is a signatory to all the above five (5) Conventions. Information is exchanged between personnel responsible for the implementation of the above mentioned Conventions and the Ramsar Administrative Authority through meetings and workshops. The ECZ is represented on all the above and ECZ is a major player . The climate change convention is infact coordinated from ECZ. This facilitates dialogue.
7.4 Is your country cooperating as part of any bilateral or multilateral activities directed at the conservation of migratory wetland species? Yes/No. If yes, please provide details.
Zambia is participating in bilateral and multilateral activities in the conservation of migratory wetland species. The department of National Parks and Wildlife Services is directly in charge of taking care of bird sanctuaries e.g. Lochinvar National Park Blue Lagoon, Sekula and Ncheta islands.
7.5 Are there multilateral and/or bilateral donors supporting projects which contribute to implementation of the Ramsar Convention in your country? Yes/No. If yes, please provide details.
Zambia has multilateral and bilateral donors who are supporting projects which contribute to the implementation of the Ramsar Convention. The following are some of the donors:
(1) The Canadian and the Royal Netherlands Governments through the World Conservation Union (IUCN) is supporting two projects in the Western part of Zambia which covers the Zambezi Flood Plains. These are:
(a) The Upper Zambezi Wetlands and Natural Resources Management Programme.
This is a five year project concerned with the logistic management of natural resources and covers water, wildlife, livestock, crop agriculture, fisheries and forestry.
The upper Zambezi Wetlands and Natural Resources Management Programmes (UZWNRMP) objective is to explore and implement a community based approach for the durable conservation and use of natural resources in the upper Zambezi basin.
(b) The Zambezi Basin Wetlands Conservation and Resource Utilisation Project (ZBWCRUP) was mounted in reaction to recognition on the part of Southern African Development Community (SADC) member states that widespread deterioration of wetlands has occurred.
The wetland values being eroded include both ecological and socio-economic components because wetlands form an important source of income generation at the local and national levels.
Under this project there are four field sites, each with its own specific theme which characterises its main issues.
- The Zambezi Delta in Mozambique whose theme is Wetlands resource Conservation, tenure and utilisation.
- The Lower Shire Wetlands in Malawi and Mozambique whose theme is: Wetlands Conservation and Food Security.
- The Barotse Flood Plain in Western Zambia whose theme is: Infrastructure support to Wetlands Conservation and Sustainable Development.
- The Chobe - Caprivi area in Namibia and Botswana whose theme is: Diversified Sustainable use through capacity building and resource use conflict resolution.
In Zambia, the project is being implemented in the Barotse Flood Plain in Western Zambia whose theme is "Infrastructure Support to Wetlands Conservation and Sustainable Development".
The project goal is to conserve the critical wetlands of the Zambezi River Basin.
The priority issue to be addressed by the project are related to: agriculture, aquatic weeds, awareness, baseline data, biodiversity, capacity building, climate cycles, demographic pressure, education, fire, fishing, forestry, gender, health, hydro-electric dams, indigenous knowledge, land tenure, mangrove forests, poverty, resource use conflict resolution, prawn production, transportation and wildlife.
2. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
The WWF is sponsoring two projects in relation to wetlands management, with the Environmental Council of Zambia. These are:
(a) The Lukanga Swamps Inventory
The Lukanga Swamps Inventory involved the collection and analysis of detailed information of the little studied Lukanga Swamps. The following fields are being studied agriculture, ecology, fisheries, socio-economy and hydrology. A comprehensive report has been prepared on the Lukanga Swamps. The Lukanga swamps are being considered for inclusion of the Ramsar list of wetlands of international importance.
(b) The Development of the Zambia Wetlands Programme (ZWP)
The ZWP is an umbrella programme which is concerned with the management of wetlands in Zambia. The programme will give direction on the development of wetlands in Zambia. The programme areas are being developed in the fields of agriculture, fisheries, land use, ecology, socio-economy, forestry, legal, education and public awareness and Geographical Information Systems (GIS).
After the development of the ZWP, Project proposals will be prepared for specific wetlands areas to meet their specific needs. The project proposals will be submitted to potential donors to source for financial resources which will be required for the management of the wetland areas. To ensure leadership and coordination of wetlands management programmes, the ECZ will establish a unit (department) to deal with wetlands issues. This will lead to legislation on use and management of wetlands.
7.6 Does your government make an annual budgetary allocation to support the conservation and wise use of wetlands within your country? Yes/No. If yes, is this a specific allocation to a wetlands programme or as part of a larger environment or natural resource management budget?
The Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) makes an annual Budget allocation to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR) and the Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ), which is for general operations of the Ministry and the Council, respectively. However, the budgetary allocation falls short of the real financial needs for the management of the wetland areas.
The short fall of finances which is experienced in the management of wetlands areas is often supplemented by sourcing funds through writing project proposals to potential donors. Once the projects are acceptable funds are provided for by the potential donor. The Small Grant Fund through the Ramsar Convention Bureau is one avenue through which funds on wetlands management are secured.
7.7 If your country has a development assistance programme, does it include funds earmarked for wetland conservation and wise use in other countries? Yes/No. If yes, please give details.
Zambia has no development assistance programme and as such does not have funds earmarked for wetland conservation and wise use in other countries. This could be because Zambia does not have a strong economic base.
7.8 Is there a formal process in place for consultation between the Ramsar Administrative Authority and the development assistance programme in your country, where one exists? Yes/No. If yes, what is that process.
Zambia has no development assistance programme, and therefore does not have a formal process in place for consultation between the Ramsar Administrative Authority in this regard.
Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 8
To provide the Convention with the required institutional mechanisms and resources.
8.1 Has your government made voluntary financial contributions, other than the invoiced contributions or to the Small Grants Fund, to further the work of the Convention globally? Yes/No. If yes, please provide details.
The Government of the Republic of Zambia has not made voluntary financial contributions, other than the invoiced contributions to the Small Grant Fund, to further the work of the Convention Globally. This is because Zambias economy cannot afford such a venture as resources are not adequate.
8.2 If your country is in arrears with the payment of its annual contributions to the Ramsar Convention, please indicate the reasons for this situation and the prospects for paying these arrears in the near future.
The Government of the Republic of Zambia has met its financial obligations relating to payment of its annual contribution to the Ramsar Convention.
Optional section - Participation of non-government organizations in the implementation of the Convention
These are optional questions relating to cooperation with and involvement of non-government organizations in the implementation of the Convention.
At COP6 some 42 NGOs made the "Brisbane NGO pledge of support for the Ramsar Convention". The Standing Committee agreed that for COP7 there should be an effort made to gauge the level and type of cooperation which is occurring between government Administrative Authorities and the national and international NGOs with an interest in wetlands issues.
In this optional section of the National Report, you are asked to describe the nature of the cooperation and relationship with any other international, regional, national and provincial NGOs operating within your country.
9.1 Approximately how many NGOs have wetlands as part of their regular "business" in your country? Please break this down between international, regional and national/provincial organizations.
Some NGOs in Zambia have wetlands as part of their regular "business" either implicitly or explicitly. The list of NGOs involved in wetlands is not comprehensive.
The following NGOs are well known for their involvement in wetlands management as part of their regular "business".
World Conservation Union (IUCN refer to section 7.5)
These are directly involved in the management of wetlands in Zambia, particularly the Zambezi Basin Wetlands.
World-wide Fund for Nature (WWF refer to section 7.5)
These are directly involved in the management of wetlands in Zambia, namely the Bangweulu swamps, Kafue flats, Lukanga Swamps and also the Zambia Wetlands Programme.
Wildlife and Environmental Conservation Society of Zambia
These are directly involved in the Education and Public Awareness in the utilisation of wetlands, in the Kafue flats. They are involved in a "Wetlands Outreach Programme" which has been funded by the Small Grants Fund (SGF) under the Ramsar Convention.
9.2 Is there a regular forum or mechanism through which these NGOs express their views on wetland conservation and Ramsar implementation:
a. to each other? Yes/No
The NGOs do meet but not on a regular basis. This can be improved upon.
b. to the government? Yes/No
The NGOs mentioned above are part of the Zambia Wetlands Steering Committee. The local and international NGOs are also invited to important meetings on wetlands.
9.3 Does your government include one or more NGO representatives on its official delegation to Ramsar COPs? Yes/No
The Government of the Republic of Zambia usually includes one NGO representative on its official delegation to Ramsar COPs but usually funding is a problem and the NGOs which attend such meetings are those that are international in nature e.g. WWF. There is need for Ramsar secretariat to consider twinning arrangements so that NGOs from developed countries can sponsor an NGO from a developing country to attend COPs.
9.4 Do any of the NGOs run programmes aimed at Education and Public Awareness about wetlands in your country? Yes/No. If yes, please give details (Refer also to question 3.1).
The Wildlife Conservation Society of Zambia (WCSZ) has been running a programme aimed at Education and Public Awareness about wetlands in Zambia. More recently, the WCSZ is running a project called the "Wetlands Outreach Programme" with the assistance of the Ramsar Convention Bureau through the Small Grant Fund (SGF). The project is aimed at raising awareness on wetlands utilisation in the Kafue flats. This will cover the sensitisation and motivation of local community in good management of wetland areas.
9.5 Where they exist, do Ramsar site management advisory committees include NGO representatives? If yes, please give details
The Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) does not yet have Ramsar Site Management Advisory Committees however, NGOs are represented on the National Committee on Wetlands called the Zambia Wetlands Steering Committee where they express their views on the management of wetlands.
9.6 Describe the themes of the Convention (refer to General Objectives 1-8 of the Strategic Plan) where you perceive the national/provincial NGOs to be most active.
The theme of Convention where the national NGOs are most active is the Ramsar Strategic Plan - General Objective 3.
To educate and raise public awareness on wetlands values and functions at National, Provincial and District levels.
10.1 General comments on implementation of the Ramsar Strategic Plan.
The Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) has made meaningful progress in the implementation of the Ramsar Strategic Plan. It is the GRZs plan to do more work on the wise management of wetlands in Zambia.
The Development of the Zambia Wetlands Programme is almost completed. The report will be ready by the end of 1998. This is an umbrella programme which will give guidance to the development and management of wetlands in Zambia. However, each wetland will be developed according to their specific needs.
The Zambia National Wetlands Policy is not yet complete. However, work has already started on the policy.
Other successes are
- the detailed inventorisation of the Lukanga Swamps in Central Zambia.
- The sustainable management of Bangweulu Swamps
- The above programmes have been carried out with the assistance of WWF.
Other success programmes are the:
Upper Zambezi Wetlands and Natural Resources Management Programme and the Zambezi Basin Wetlands Conservation and Resource utilisation project.
The above programme are carried out by IUCN.
On the implementation of the Ramsar strategic plan as a whole the major limitation to its implementation is the financial resources.
10.2 Observations concerning the functioning of, relations with, and services provided by:
a. The Ramsar Standing Committee
b. The Ramsar Scientific and Technical Review Panel
c. The Ramsar Bureau
d. The Ramsar NGO partners
The Government of the Republic of Zambia has no objections regarding the functioning of the Ramsar Standing Committee, Ramsar Scientific and Technical Review Panel and the Ramsar Bureau.
The Relationship between the Government of the Republic of Zambia and the above organisations of the Ramsar Convention Bureau has been fruitful and should thus continue.
The Government of the Republic of Zambia values highly the services provided by the Ramsar Bureau and would like to see them continue with the good work. The GRZ further values highly the functioning of, relations with and services provided by the Ramsar NGO partners.
10.3 Any other general observations and/or recommendations for the future.
The Government of the Republic of Zambia takes the pleasure to request the Ramsar Convention to assist provide avenues for capacity building in its complete form or in part according to Zambias needs. Such needs include institutional strengthening and training needs in different aspects of wetlands management including applied relevant research, the setting up of a department that is fully charged with the management of wetlands and the general financial assistance which is needed in the initial stages before the unit is fully operational and funded by the GRZ.
Recognising the significance of wetlands in this country, and pursuing the obligations of the Ramsar Convention, Zambia wishes to recommend that the Scientific and Technical Review Panel of Experts assists in enlisting more wetlands of International Importance as Ramsar Sites, in Zambia.
Appendix to Zambia's National Report (not reproduced here)
Map showing major wetland areas and current Ramsar Sites in Zambia
- The Kafue Flats
- The Bangweulu Swamps
- The Barotse Plains
- The Luapula-Mweru Swamps
- The Mweru-wantipa swamps and
- The Lukanga Swamps