The Annotated Ramsar List: Italy

27/09/2010

The Annotated Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance

ITALY / ITALIE / ITALIA

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The Convention on Wetlands came into force for Italy on 14 April 1977. Italy presently has 52 sites designated as Wetlands of International Importance, with a surface area of 60,223 hectares.

site; date of designation; region, province, state; surface area; coordinates
site; date de désignation; région, province, état; superficie; coordonnées
sitios; fecha de designación; región, provincia, estado; área; coordenadas

Bacino dell’Angitola. 11/04/89; Calabria; 875 ha; 38º44’N 016º14’E. Wildlife Sanctuary. An artificial irrigation reservoir and the only freshwater wetland along a substantial stretch of the Tyrrhenian Sea coast. Vegetation is characterized by emergent species with the banks supporting typical riparian vegetation giving way to Mediterranean scrub. Up to 6,000 waterbirds of numerous species occur in winter and during migration periods. The area has an important conservation education function. Ramsar site no. 426. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Biviere di Gela. 12/04/88; Sicilia; 256 ha; 37º01’N 014º20’E. National Park, Natural Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuary. A coastal, freshwater lagoon at the mouth of the Torta River backed by hills and separated from the sea by a dune system. Vegetation consists of submerged aquatic plants and emergent species. The site is used for commercial fishing and as a water source for irrigation of surrounding cultivated land. The area is important as a staging area for numerous species of migratory birds, including important numbers of Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. The site also supports the highest diversity of nesting waterbirds of any wetland in Sicily. Ramsar site no. 397. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Isola Boscone. 11/04/89; Lombardia; 201 ha; 45º03’N 011º14’E. Natural Reserve. A fluvial island on the Po River, connected to the shore by an artificial isthmus. The area supports a diverse aquatic vegetation. The site supports an important heronry and large numbers of several species of nesting birds. Human activities include angling and conservation education, while the surrounding area is used intensively for agriculture, Populus forestry, and fishing. Ramsar site no. 425. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Lago dei Monaci. 14/12/76; Lazio; 94 ha; 41º22’N 012º55’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; National Park. The smallest of a series of brackish, coastal lagoons and associated saltmarshes and separated from the sea by a dune system. Vegetation includes fringing reedbeds, submergent plants, algae and salt-tolerant plants. The lagoon and its feeder canals support a varied fish fauna. A wide variety of waterbirds use the site during migration and in winter. Human activities include commercial fishing and mass tourism. Ramsar site no. 128. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Lago di Barrea. 14/12/76; Abruzzo; 303 ha; 41º46’N 013º58’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; National Park. A freshwater reservoir created for hydroelectric generation by damming the Sangro River, and thus subject to dramatic variations in water level. Although situated at relatively high altitude away from major migratory bird flyways, numerous species of waterbirds use the site for staging, wintering and nesting. The area is subject to significant recreational use in the summer months, and water quality is problematic. Ramsar site no. 131. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Lago di Burano. 14/12/76; Toscana; 410 ha; 42º24’N 011º23’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Integrated Natural Reserve. A saline lake separated from the sea (except for a narrow connecting channel) by a double line of dunes covered by dry Mediterranean scrub. The lake supports submergent and emergent vegetation. The area is important for staging and wintering up to 10,000 waterbirds of various species, and is an important refuge from hunting. Land use includes recreation, fishing and agriculture. Natural vegetational succession requires management. Ramsar site no. 125. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Lago di Caprolace. 14/12/76; Lazio; 229 ha; 41º20’N 012º58’E. Special Protection Area under EC Directive; National Park. A brackish, coastal lagoon and associated saltmarsh separated from the sea by a dune system. The vegetation includes reed and sedge beds and various salt-tolerant plants. A varied fish fauna is supported and numerous species of breeding, migrating and wintering waterbirds use the site. Human activities include commercial fishing, semi-intensive aquaculture, shellfish farming and tourism. Ramsar site no. 129. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Lago di Fogliano. 14/12/76; Lazio; 395 ha; 41º23’N 012º54’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; National Park. A brackish lagoon, separated from the sea (except for narrow openings) by dunes. Vegetation consists of fringing reedbeds, submergents, and salt-tolerant plants. Diverse species of waterbirds occur in winter and during migration. Various species nest at the site. Ramsar site no. 127. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Lago di Nazzano. 14/12/76; Lazio; 265 ha; 42º12’N 012º36’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Natural Reserve. An artificial reservoir formed by the damming of the Tevere River, fringed by reedbeds with patches of wooded swamp and woodland which pre-date the lake. Numerous species of waterbirds use the site for nesting, wintering, or passage. The reservoir is used for hydroelectric generation and recreation. Water levels vary dramatically due to regulation which adversely affects vegetation and nesting birds. Ramsar site no. 126. Most recent RIS information: 1999.

Lago di Sabaudia. 14/12/76; Lazio; 1,474 ha; 41º16’N 013º01’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; National Park. A chain of brackish, coastal lagoon, a lake and associated saltmarsh separated from the sea by a dune system. The vegetation includes reed and sedge beds and various salt-tolerant plants. A varied fish fauna is supported and numerous species of breeding, migrating and wintering waterbirds use the site. Human activities include commercial fishing, semi-intensive aquaculture, seasonal shell-fish harvesting, and intensive summer tourism. Ramsar site no. 130. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Lago di San Giuliano. 13/12/06; Basilicata; 2,118 ha; 40°38'N 016°29'E. Site of Community Importance EU Directive, Important Bird Area, Regional Nature Reserve. A lake and stream situated in a depression of the Bradano river basin. The wetland originated after the spontaneous return to natural conditions of an artificial basin created when a dam was built for irrigation purposes in the 1950s. The area is characterised by three different habitats: the natural lake, the riparian fringe, and a rocky ravine. A broad temporarily flooded meadow extends between the planted woodland and the lake edge. The site supports overwintering animal populations, in particular wildfowl, and provides refuge to one of the rarest mammals in the country: the otter Lutra lutra. The fish community of the Bradano river was profoundly altered by the building of the dam and by indiscriminate fishing practices; currently there are a number of common species and some endemic ones like the Italian bleak (Alburnus albidus) and rovella or South European roach (Rutilus rubilio). Around the lake there are old farms breeding mainly sheep and cattle; typical local products of agriculture and animal husbandry have also attracted tourism enterprises. Conservation education is part of a major WWF programme within the Reserve, and educational facilities have developed over the past ten years to address the public, school groups, and educators. Ramsar site no. 1663. Most recent RIS information: 2006.

Lago di Tovel. 19/09/80; Trentino Alto Adige; 37 ha; 46º16’N 010º57’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Natural Park. An alpine, freshwater lake, surrounded by forested mountains. The lake supports an endemic species of unicellular algae, Glenodinium sanguineum, which reddens the water seasonally. The area supports a rich mammal fauna. Human activities include camping and hiking. Ramsar site no. 210. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Laguna di Marano: Foci dello Stella. 14/05/79; Friuli-Venezia Giulia; 1,400 ha; 45º44’N 013º08’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary. Part of the Laguna di Marano, lying within the vast lagoon complex formed by the deltas of the Tagliamento and Isonzo rivers. The site includes a fossil dune complex and tidal waters of varying salinity with extensive intertidal mud and sand flats. The intertidal flats support beds of Zostera spp. and Ruppia maritima and submerged halophytic plants and are fringed by extensive reedbeds. The area is internationally important for several species of nesting, staging and wintering waterbirds. Human activities include hunting, tourism, and conservation education. The lagoon environment is changing due to rising sea level. Ramsar site no. 190. Most recent RIS information: 1999.

Laguna di Orbetello. 14/12/76; Toscana; 887 ha; 42º27’N 011º13’E. Added to the Montreux Record, 31 December 1993, removed from the Record, 21 March 2000. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Natural Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuary. A large, brackish lagoon of fringing reedbeds, extensive algae beds, salt-resistant vegetation, and an abundant invertebrate fauna separated from the sea by a dune cordon. The site is significant for numerous important species of nesting and wintering waterbirds, with wintering birds exceeding 10,000 individuals. Human activities include commercial fishing, ecotourism and hunting. The site suffers from nutrient-enrichment and siltation as a result of sewage effluent from the town of Orbetello. This and other anthropogenic impacts have decreased water circulation and created some anoxic conditions. These problems led to the site’s inclusion on the Montreux Record in 1993. Subject of a Ramsar Advisory Mission in 1998. Ramsar site no. 124. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Laguna di Venezia: Valle Averto. 11/04/89; Veneto; 500 ha; 45º21’N 012º09’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary. The site consists of a complex of coastal lagoons, modified by the creation of fishponds. It exhibits a full range of wetland habitats, progressing from freshwater marsh and reed swamp to open saline water with intertidal sand flats. The complex supports an extremely rich fish fauna, including freshwater species. The area is internationally important for numerous species of nesting, staging and wintering waterbirds. Human activities within the site include extensive fish farming and conservation education. Ramsar site no. 423. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Lagustelli di Percile27/08/08; Latium; 256 ha; 42°06’N 012°55’E. Natura 2000 SPA; Regional Natural Park. In the hills of the province of Roma, two closed Apennine lakes, “Marraone” (the smaller with only 40 m diameter) and the wider “Marrone” also called “Fraturno” (118 m diam, depth 14 m), and their surroundings. The two basins constitute one of the most interesting areas of karstic origin of central Italy and their circular morphology witness their origin as dolines. The main habitats are large reed beds, built up by Phragmites australis associated with Scirpus spp. and Alisma plantago-aquatica, riparian vegetation with Salix spp., Populus spp., typical aquatic vegetation river-side, such as Potamogeton spp. and Myriophyllum sp., and important population of orchids growing on the calcareous grasslands around the lakes. The site also supports several species protected at European level such as:Salamandra terdigidata, Triturus carnifex, Bombina variegate, Euplagia quadripunctata, Euphydryas (aurinia) provincialis and Lanius collurio. Cow grazing and tourism are the main threats in the area. Ramsar site no. 1812. Most recent RIS information: 2008.

Le Cesine. 06/12/77; Puglia; 620 ha; 40º20’N 018º21’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Natural Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuary. A coastal, wetland complex, separated from the sea by a dune system. Habitats include open brackish pools, reedbeds and associated saltmarsh, bordered by Mediterranean scrub and woodland. The site is important for the nesting, staging and wintering of numerous species of waterbirds. Several rare plant species occur. The site is important for conservation education and cultivation. Ramsar site no. 168. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Oasi del Sele-Serre Persano. 13/12/06; Campania; 174 ha, 40°37'N 015°08'E. Site of Community Importance EU Directive, Important Bird Area, Regional Nature Reserve. A reservoir that was created by the damming of the Sele River in the first half of the 20th century; the Oasis of Persano, the main portion of the wetlands, originated in 1981 following an agreement between WWF and the local water authorities. The surrounding landscape consists of inundated meadows, riparian woodland, flooded forest, fens and swamps. The dominant vegetation comprises magnopotamion and hydrocarition habitat types, typical of the Mediterranean Region. The most noteworthy protected species residing within the wetland is undoubtedly the otter (Lutra lutra) which is the most threatened mammal in the country. The area represents an interesting bird resting and nesting site for aquatic, riparian, macchia, and woodland species; it is also characterised by a rich herpetofauna. Small-scale agriculture is practiced by local residents, and there is a visitor's centre with nature trails and facilities for school visits. Ramsar site no. 1665. Most recent RIS information: 2006.

Oasi di Castelvolturno o Variconi. 13/12/06; Campania; 195 ha; 41°01'N 015°56'E. Site of Community Importance EU Directive, Important Bird Area, Regional Nature Reserve. A good example of a morphologically pristine site, belonging to the last remaining portion of a far more extensive complex of swamps drained between the 17th and 18th centuries. The site lies within the left bank of the Volturno delta in southern Italy and includes a freshwater pond and a saline lagoon separated by an artificial levee which connects the riparian strip with the mainland. The site, which hosts remarkable examples of arborescent halophilous vegetation, is part of the larger "Volturno Costa Licola Delta" Nature Reserve, which represents one of the areas endowed with the largest number of aquatic bird species within the whole Thyrrenian coastal area. Hundreds of species and thousands of specimens transit and/or spend winter by the ponds situated within the delta, among which Podiceps sp.pl., Larus sp.pl., Sterna sp.pl. and Phalacrocorax carbo are the most common. Upstream irrigation works are seen as a potential threat. The site is provided with a bird observation hut and a nature trail, and there are educational activities for schoolchildren in the region. Ramsar site no. 1664. Most recent RIS information: 2006.

Ortazzo e Ortazzino. 04/09/81; Emilia Romagna; 440 ha; 44º20’N 012º19’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary, State Natural Reserve. A large, partly flooded depression, once used for rice cultivation, consisting of numerous large, well-vegetated, brackish pools lying behind a system of coastal dunes. Water levels are artificially regulated. The area supports salt-resistant vegetation, dune communities, woods, and Mediterranean scrub. The variety of habitats in the area gives rise to a rich avifauna which includes large numbers of breeding and staging waterbirds. Human activities include intensive tourism and fishing. Ramsar site no. 227. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Palude del Brusà – Le Vallette. 27/09/10. Veneto Region, Verona, Cerea. 171 ha; 45°10’N 011°13’E. Site of Community Importance (SCI), Special Protection Areas (SPA), Strict Nature Reserve. Located in the municipality of Cerea in the southern part of the Verona Province and one of the largest wetlands remaining after drainage and reclamation of most of the surrounding area. The Menago River runs for 42 km from north to south through the region and flows into the Tartaro-Canal Bianco River. This site is an alluvial area originating from the accumulation of sediments transported by Quaternary glaciers and rivers that have filled the existing lagoon over the years. The habitat mainly consists of freshwater marshes and pools and constitutes one of the best preserved examples of its kind in the “Padano-Veneta” plain. The site supports three species of amphibians and reptiles named in the EU Habitat Directive, the Triturus carnifex, Rana latastei and Emys orbicularis. Moreover, the site has an important role as a resting, breeding and wintering area for many rare species of the “Pianura Padana” wetland system and several birds are mentioned in Annex I of the EU Birds Directive, including Aythya nyroca, Ixobrychus minutus, Botaurus stellaris, Ardea purpurea and Circus aeruginosus. Approximately 150 species of birds are seen in the site throughout the year. Human activities in the wetland include harvesting of marsh plants (reeds and sedges), although this activity is gradually declining, and tourist activities which are slowly developing. Ramsar Site no. 1929. Most recent RIS information: 2010.

Palude Brabbia. 05/12/84; Lombardia; 459 ha; 45º44’N 008º40’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Natural Reserve. The site is situated in a valley of glacial origins and includes areas of marsh, open water, and wet meadows dissected by channels. It is fed by the Brabbia canal and surrounded by heavily built-up hills. The marsh vegetation consists of various species of aquatic plants that include a number of rare species. The area is important for diverse species of breeding wetland birds. Birdwatching and conservation education facilities are available. The wetland depends on an elaborate system of water management. Ramsar site no. 296. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Palude della Diaccia Botrona. 22/05/91; Toscana; 2,500 ha; 42º48’N 010º57’E. Added to the Montreux Record, 31 December 1993, removed from the Record, 21 March 2000. Communal Protected Area, Natural Reserve. A brackish coastal marsh connected with the sea by canals from the Bruna River but separated from the sea by a dune system. The vegetation is dominated by Juncus spp. and Salicornia spp., and includes Mediterranean scrub and woodland. The area is important for feeding, nesting and staging up to 300 species of migratory waterbirds. A small observatory is maintained. The site was placed on the Montreux Record in 1993 due to serious degradation resulting from intensive fish-farming, salinization, and poor water circulation. Subject of a Ramsar Advisory Mission in 1998. Ramsar site no. 522. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Palude di Bolgheri. 14/12/76; Toscana; 518 ha; 43º13’N 010º33’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary. Partly wooded marshland separated from the beach and sea by a double cordon of dunes covered with dry Mediterranean scrub. The dunes give way to a series of freshwater pools surrounded by typical marsh vegetation and areas of wet woodland. Surrounding areas consist of cultivated fields divided by hedgerows and trees. The site is important as a staging and nesting area for a wide range of migratory waterbirds. Ramsar site no. 123. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Palude di Colfiorito. 14/12/76; Umbria; 157 ha; 43º01’N 012º53’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary, Hunting Reserve. An area of spring-fed freshwater marsh exhibiting considerable seasonal variation set in the Apennines. Aquatic vegetation consists of submergent and floating vegetation, reedbeds and various notable plants. The site is an important staging area for several species of migratory waterbirds. Human activities include commercial fishing, agriculture, hunting, and tourism. Ramsar site no. 122. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Palude di Ostiglia .05/12/84; Lombardia; 123 ha; 45º04’N 011º06’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Natural Reserve. A marshy area lying between the Po and Tione rivers, forming an artificial, raised basin dependent entirely on the inflow of agricultural runoff. Most of the site is covered by reedbeds that are harvested on a commercial basis. Several species use the site for breeding. Facilities for birdwatching and conservation education are available. Ramsar site no. 297. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Pantano di Pignola. 13/12/06; Basilicata; 172 ha; 40°36'N 015°45'E. Site of Community Importance EU Directive, Important Bird Area, Regional Nature Reserve. The wetland originated as a muddy pool collecting the contribution of a few springs. During the 1930s and '40s, under the fascist regime, the area was drained for farming development and to reduce the incidence of malaria. Towards the 1960s nearby fields were partially converted into a storage reservoir and now the site is currently undergoing a gradual return to natural conditions. This semi-natural basin of 2.5m depth is characterised by a varied and well-structured botanical community; fringe vegetation includes Phragmitetum communis, Typhetum angustifoliae and Scirpetum lacustris. Well represented are perennial grasses and sedge formations typical of the alluvial banks of large Mediterranean rivers. The lake also represents an important transit and nesting site for a number of residential and migratory bird species. Several farm tourism centres are developing in response to a growing demand for cultural tourism, as the area is renowned for its typical products like cheeses, wines and beans. WWF operates an active programme of conservation education. Ramsar site no. 1666. Most recent RIS information: 2006.

Piallassa della Baiona e Risega. 04/09/81; Emilia Romagna; 1,630 ha; 44º30’N 012º15’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Park. A coastal basin of extensive areas of open water dissected by a network of canals. Vegetation includes submergent vegetation, reedbeds, grasses, and salt-tolerant plants. The area is particularly important for various species of staging, wintering and breeding waterbirds. Human activities include fish farming and hunting. Ramsar site no. 226. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Pian di Spagna-Lago di Mezzola.14/12/76; Lombardia; 1,740 ha; 46º13’N 009º26’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Natural Reserve. The site, an alluvial floodplain in the Alp foothills, lies between the Lakes Mezzola and Como and is formed by the confluence of the Mera and Adda rivers. A diverse aquatic vegetation is supported in the associated marsh. The area is important for numerous species of breeding and wintering waterbirds and nesting raptors. The lake supports a rich fish fauna, is intensively fished, and provides fish spawning and nursery areas. Human activities include boating and intensive agriculture in the surroundings. Ramsar site no. 117. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Punte Alberete. 14/12/76; Emilia Romagna; 480 ha; 44º31’N 012º14’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Park. An extensive wetland complex within the Po River floodplain consisting of alluvial woodland and relict sand dunes. Extensive reedbeds and submergent and floating vegetation are supported. An important area for breeding, nesting and wintering waterbirds. The area is supplied mainly with water from the polluted Lamone River. Nutrient-enrichment, sedimentation and vegetational succession are problems. Ramsar site no. 121. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Sacca di Belócchio. 14/12/76; Emilia Romagna; 223 ha; 44º37’N 012º16’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; State Natural Reserve, Regional Park. An inter-dunal lagoon fed with fresh water via a canal from the Reno River and connected to the Adriatic Sea. Water level is subject to seasonal variation, and the brackish environment is artificially maintained. Vegetation includes submergent flora, salt-tolerant plants, emergent reedbeds, and damp grassland cut for animal fodder. The area is important for several species of fish and for breeding, staging and nesting numerous species of waterbirds. Part of the site is used as a firing range and is subject to use by heavy military vehicles. Ramsar site no. 119. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Saline di Cervia. 04/09/81; Emilia Romagna; 785 ha; 44º15’N 012º20’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; State Natural Reserve, Provincial Wildlife Sanctuary. An extensive complex of salt pans, dissected by a network of channels and embankments linked to the sea by an artificial canal. Vegetation includes submerged aquatic flora and salt-tolerant plants. The area is important for nesting waterbirds and staging migratory birds. The principal land use is salt production; other human activities include hunting. Ramsar site no. 228. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Saline di Margherita di Savoia. 02/08/79; Puglia; 3,871 ha; 41º24’N 016º04’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive Natural Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuary. A complex of salt pans connected with the sea, supporting salt-resistant vegetation and scattered reed and sedge beds. Up to 30,000 waterbirds of numerous species winter at the site. Human activities include commercial salt extraction, fish rearing and ecotourism. Ramsar site no. 191. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Stagno di Cábras. 28/03/79; Sardegna; 3,575 ha; 39º57’N 008º29’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary. The site is the largest freshwater lake in Sardinia. It is supplied mainly by the Mare Foghe River, together with runoff from adjacent agricultural land, and is connected with the sea by a narrow channel. Vegetation consists of various salt-tolerant plants, submergent species and emergent reedbeds. The site is important for numerous species of breeding, staging and wintering waterbirds, with Phoenicopterus ruber roseus occurring in large numbers. Human activities include commercial fishing, agriculture and tourism. Ramsar site no. 178. Most recent RIS information: ?.

Stagno di Cagliari. 14/12/76; Sardegna; 3,466 ha; 39º12’N 009º03’E. Added to the Montreux Record, 4 July 1990; removed from the Record, 26 November 2008. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary. A large, coastal lagoon, converted to 2,000 ha of salt pans, and a dune system. The lagoon is fed with fresh water by the Cixerri and Mannu rivers. Vegetation consists of extensive reedbeds and salt-tolerant plants. The lagoon supports rich fish and invertebrate faunas and is critical habitat for numerous important species of breeding, wintering and staging waterbirds. The ecology of the site has been seriously damaged by thermal, industrial and urban effluent from the city of Cagliari, resulting in nutrient-enrichment. Additionally, major port development projects have caused substantial changes in the ecological character of the site. The site was added to the Montreux Record in 1990 due to these factors and removed from the Record on 25 November 2008 following successful remedial efforts (PDF). Ramsar site no. 134. Most recent RIS information: 2008.

Stagno di Corru S’Ittiri, Stagni di San Giovanni e Marceddì. 28/03/79; Sardegna; 2,610 ha; 39º44’N 008º30’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive. A series of three interconnected coastal lagoons of varying salinity, partly separated from the sea by a dune system. Vegetation consists of extensive reedbeds and halophytic plants. The lagoons support a rich fish fauna and are used for commercial fishing and shell-fish harvesting. The area is important for numerous species of breeding and wintering waterbirds. Ramsar site no. 179. Most recent RIS information: ?.

Stagno di Mistras. 03/05/82; Sardegna; 680 ha; 39º54’N 008º28’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary. A brackish, coastal lagoon connected with the Gulf of Oristano by means of a wide channel, but separated from the sea by a dune system. Virtually all of the wetland’s fresh water comes from rainfall and runoff, thus salinity varies seasonally. Vegetation consists of submergent species while the fringing vegetation is typically halophytic. The lagoon is rich in bivalve molluscs and fish. The site is important for a range of staging, breeding and wintering waterbirds. Human activities include commercial fishing and shell-fish harvesting. Ramsar site no. 233. Most recent RIS information: ?.

Stagno di Molentargius. 14/12/76; Sardegna; 1,401 ha; 39º14’N 009º10’E. Added to the Montreux Record, 4 July 1990, removed from the Record, 2 July 2008. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary. A heavily modified lagoon complex of varying salinity and extensive salt pans, separated from the sea by a fossil dune system. The site supports extensive reedbeds, submergent vegetation, and rich fish and invertebrate faunas. An important area for breeding, staging and wintering numerous species of waterbirds, including various protected species. Human activities include a salt industry, hunting, commercial fishing, and tourism. The site is subject to industrial and urban effluent and surrounding areas are rapidly becomng urbanized. Industrial and urban effluent, illegal dumping and poaching, and urban expansion have seriously damaged the ecology of the site. Coastal development has destroyed important nesting sites. As a result, the site was placed on the Montreux Record in 1990 and removed on 2 July 2008 (PDF). Ramsar site no. 133. Most recent RIS information: 2008.

Stagno di Pauli Maiori. 28/03/79; Sardegna; 287 ha; 39º52’N 008º37’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Hunting Sanctuary. A small freshwater lagoon surrounded by extensive reedbeds and connected to a second lagoon. The only inflow consists of waste water runoff from agricultural irrigation. The lagoon supports submerged vegetation, and the site is important for several species of breeding waterbirds. A major road and railway line pass between the two wetlands. Ramsar site no. 180. Most recent RIS information: ?.

Stagno di S’Ena Arrubia. 14/12/76; Sardegna; 223 ha; 39º50’N 008º34’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary. A freshwater lagoon, representing the last remnant of a once extensive complex of marshes and lagoons, converted to agriculture in the 1930s. The site is fed with runoff from irrigated agricultural land and is connected with the sea via a channel and sluice gate. The vegetation consists of submergent species, extensive fringing reedbeds and salt-tolerant plants. The area is important for the breeding, staging and wintering of several species of waterbirds. The lagoon supports a commercial fishery, although runoff is enriched by agricultural chemicals. Ramsar site no. 132. Most recent RIS information: ?.

Stagno di Sale Porcus. 03/05/82; Sardegna; 330 ha; 40º01’N 008º21’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Natural Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuary. An extensive complex of seasonal, saline lagoons that dry out in summer, leaving a hard salt crust. The vegetation is typically halophytic. When full, there are three small islets that are important nesting sites for birds. The site is one of the most important wetlands in the Mediterranean for staging flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus). Various other migratory waterbirds stage and nest at the site. There are facilities for birdwatching and conservation education. Ramsar site no. 232. Most recent RIS information: ?.

Torbiere d’Iseo. 05/12/84; Lombardia; 325 ha; 45º38’N 010º02’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Natural Reserve. A complex of artificial pools formed by peat cutting to the South of Iseo Lake. The pools support floating and emergent vegetation, wet meadows and woodland. The site is an important nesting area for a diversity of waterbirds. Ramsar site no. 295. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Torre Guaceto. 21/07/81; Puglia; 940 ha; 40º43’N 017º48’E. Added to the Montreux Record, 31 December 1993, removed from the Record, 21 March 2000. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Wildlife Sanctuary, Marine Nature Reserve, State Natural Reserve. A small, brackish marsh dissected by a network of canals and separated from the sea by a dune system. The site includes adjacent shallow seas and several small islands. Vegetation associations of particular interest are supported, including a diverse aquatic community and areas of Mediterranean scrub. The marsh is an important staging area for several species of migratory birds and provides habitat for various endangered waterbirds. The site is of archaeological interest, owing to the presence of the remains of a Neolithic village. The site, subject to inputs of sewage and industrial effluent, was added to the Montreux Record in 1993 due to the various anthropogenic disturbances. Subject of a Ramsar Advisory Mission in 1998. Ramsar site no. 215. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Valle Bertuzzi. 04/09/81; Emilia Romagna; 3,100 ha; 44º47’N 012º14’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Park, Wildlife Sanctuary. A brackish, coastal lagoon separated from the sea by sand spits and including stabilized dunes with thickets, small islands covered by salt-resistant vegetation, and areas of reedbeds. Several species of waterbirds use the site for breeding, and large numbers of waterbirds occur in winter and during migration periods. Ramsar site no. 224. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Valle Campotto e Bassarone. 28/03/79; Emilia Romagna; 1,363 ha; 44º35’N 011º50’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Park. An artificial, freshwater impoundment at the confluence of the Idice and Reno rivers. The site is supplied by flood water from the Idice and drains into the Reno. The open water area is colonized by various aquatic plants, and fringed by reedbeds and areas of wet forest. A rich fish fauna is supported and the area is important for numerous species of nesting waterbirds. A wide variety of passage and wintering birds also occur. The site is used for intensive fish farming, angling and general recreation. Ramsar site no. 181. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Valle Cavanata. 10/03/78; Friuli-Venezia Giulia; 243 ha; 45º43’N 013º28’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive. The site, a fish pond, was created from coastal lagoons and wetlands. The freshwater parts of the site support reedbeds, salt-resistant vegetation and submergent flora, including Zostera beds. The area is important for breeding and passage birds, with up to 10,000 occurring during migration periods. Human activities include commercial fish farming and tourism. Tourism and fish farming are intensive. Ramsar site no. 169. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Valle di Gorino. 04/09/81; Emilia Romagna; 1,330 ha; 44º48’N 012º21’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Park, State Natural Reserve, Wildlife Sanctuary. A coastal lagoon separated from the sea by a dune system. Wetland vegetation consists of submergent and emergent communities. The area is important for several species of nesting birds, and large numbers of waterbirds stage and winter in the area. Human activities include tourism, fishing, commercial shellfish farming, and hunting. Ramsar site no. 223. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Valle Santa. 14/12/76; Emilia Romagna; 261 ha; 44º33’N 011º50’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Park, Wildlife Sanctuary. An artificial, freshwater impoundment at the confluence of the Sillaro and Idice Rivers. Various aquatic plants are supported and reedbeds fringe the site. There is a rich fish fauna. The area is particularly important for numerous species of nesting, passage and wintering waterbirds. The site is used for intensive fish farming, angling and general recreation. Ramsar site no. 120. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Valli del Mincio. 05/12/84; Lombardia; 1,082 ha; 45º10’N 010º42’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Natural Park, Regional Natural Reserve. A complex of artificial pools created from marshland in the floodplain of the Mincio River. Vegetation consists of emergent, floating and submergent species and includes species rare in Italy. The pools support a rich fish fauna. A diversity of breeding and wintering birds occur, including the regionally rare Acrocephalus melanopogon. Human activities include reed cutting and commercial fishing. Dams in surrounding mountain valleys prevent the passage of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla) and numbers are declining. Ramsar site no. 294. Most recent RIS information: ?.

Valli residue del comprensorio di Comacchio. 04/09/81; Emilia Romagna; 13,500 ha; 44º37’N 012º11’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive. The remnants of an extensive complex of coastal lagoons and marshes drained in 1850 for agriculture. The site includes a shallow, brackish lagoon connected with the sea, sand banks and islands. Vegetation is dominated by salt-tolerant plants. The single most important wetland in Italy for breeding waterbirds, the area is also a valuable staging and wintering area. Birdwatching and conservation education facilities are available. Ramsar site no. 225. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

Vendicari.11/04/89; Sicilia; 1,450 ha; 36º48’N 015º07’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Regional Natural Reserve. A complex of five brackish lakes subject to marked seasonal variations in extent and salinity. Saline areas support typical salt-resistant vegetation, while freshwater areas give rise to a more varied flora. The site supports up to 20,000 waterbirds during the spring migration period, and is also important for wintering birds. Several notable nesting species as well as large numbers of shorebirds use the area. The site is subject to considerable tourism-related development. Ramsar site no. 424. Most recent RIS information: ?.

Vincheto di Cellarda. 14/12/76; Veneto; 99 ha; 46º01’N 011º58’E. Special Protection Area EC Directive; Nature Reserve. Part of the periodically inundated floodplain of the Piave, a highly braided river rising in the Alps and emptying into Venice Lagoon. The area includes many oxbow lakes and other riverine wetlands. Vegetation includes deciduous woodland, thickets, permanent meadows and marshes supporting reedbeds. The site supports many nesting birds, as well as numerous species of wintering and passage waterbirds. The site is used for grazing and general recreation. Ramsar site no. 118. Most recent RIS information: 1998.

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